Jack pine

Pinus banksiana

Jack pine, ''Pinus banksiana'', is an eastern North American pine. Its native range in Canada is east of the Rocky Mountains from Northwest Territories to Nova Scotia, and the north-central and northeast of the United States from Minnesota to Maine, with the southernmost part of the range just into northwest Indiana and northwest Pennsylvania. It is also known as grey pine and scrub pine.

In the far west of its range, ''Pinus banksiana'' hybridizes readily with the closely related lodgepole pine . ''Banksiana'' is after the English botanist Sir Joseph Banks.
Pinus banksiana Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine) pollen cone cluster. Geotagged,Jack pine,Pinus banksiana,Spring,United States

Appearance

''Pinus banksiana'' ranges from 9–22 m in height. Some jack pines are shrub-sized, due to poor growing conditions. They do not usually grow perfectly straight, resulting in an irregular shape similar to pitch pine . This pine often forms pure stands on sandy or rocky soil. It is fire-adapted to stand-replacing fires, with the cones remaining closed for many years, until a forest fire kills the mature trees and opens the cones, reseeding the burnt ground.

The leaves are in fascicles of two, needle-like, twisted, slightly yellowish-green, and 2–4 centimetres long.

Jack pine cones are usually 5 centimetres and curved at the tip. The cones are 3–5 cm long, the scales with a small, fragile prickle that usually wears off before maturity, leaving the cones smooth.

Unusually for a pine, the cones normally point forward along the branch, sometimes curling around it. That is an easy way to tell it apart from the similar lodgepole pine in more western areas of North America. The cones on mature trees are serotinous. They open when exposed to intense heat, greater than or equal to 50 °C . The typical case is in a fire, however cones on the lower branches can open when temperatures reach 27 °C due to the heat being reflected off the ground. Additionally, when temperatures reach −46 °C , the cones will open, due to the nature of the resin.
Overlook Taken from the highest point in Minnesota: Eagle Mountain. Minnesota is so beautiful and I am proud to call it my home. The ten mile hike was worth this shot! Geotagged,Jack pine,Pinus banksiana,United States,high,hiking,mountain,tree

Habitat

Kirtland's warbler , an endangered bird, depends on pure stands of young jack pine in a very limited area in the north of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan for breeding. Mature jack pine forests are usually open, and the fall of their needles creates acidic soil, so blueberries are often abundant in the understory.

Young jack pines are an alternate host for sweet fern blister rust . Infected sweet ferns release powdery orange spores in the summer and nearby trees become infected in the fall. Diseased trees show vertical orange cankers on the trunk and galls on the lower branches. The disease does not tend to affect older trees.

Jack pines are also susceptible to scleroderris canker . This disease manifests by yellowing at the base of the needles. Prolonged exposure may lead to eventual death of the tree.

Insects that attack jack pine stands include white pine weevil , jack pine sawfly, and jack pine budworm.
Jack Pine growing on a massive rock out crop. Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine) on a massive rock outcrop near Pickerel Creek. Geotagged,Jack pine,Minnesota,Pickerel Creek,Pinus banksiana,Summer,United States

Uses

Like other species of pine, ''Pinus banksiana'' has use as timber, although its wood tends to be knotty and not highly resistant to decay. Products include pulpwood, fuel, decking, and utility poles.

References:

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Status: Unknown
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Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionPinophyta
ClassPinopsida
OrderPinales
FamilyPinaceae
GenusPinus
SpeciesP. banksiana