Przewalskis horse

Equus ferus przewalskii

Przewalski's horse or Dzungarian horse, is a rare and endangered subspecies of wild horse native to the steppes of central Asia, specifically Mongolia. At one time extinct in the wild , it has been reintroduced to its native habitat in Mongolia at the Khustain Nuruu National Park, Takhin Tal Nature Reserve, and Khomiin Tal. The taxonomic position is still debated, and some taxonomists treat Przewalski's horse as a species, ''Equus przewalskii''.

Common names for this equine include ''Asian wild horse'', ''Przewalski's wild horse'', ''Mongolian wild horse'', and ''tahki''. Historical but obsolete names include ''true tarpan'' and ''Mongolian tarpan''. The horse is named after the Russian geographer and explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky.

Most "wild" horses today, such as the American Mustang or the Australian Brumby, are actually feral horses descended from domesticated animals that escaped and adapted to life in the wild. In contrast, Przewalski's horse has never been domesticated and remains a truly wild animal today. Przewalski's horse is one of three known subspecies of ''Equus ferus'', the others being the domesticated horse, ''Equus ferus caballus'' and the extinct tarpan ''''. The Przewalski's horse is considered the only remaining truly wild "horse" in the world and may be the closest living wild relative of the domesticated horse. There are still a number of other wild equines, including three species of zebra and various subspecies of the African wild ass, onager , and kiang.
Przewalskis_Horse  Equus ferus przewalskii,Przewalskis horse

Appearance

Przewalski's horse is stockily built in comparison to domesticated horses, with shorter legs. Typical height is about 13 hands , length is about 2.1 m . They weigh around 300 kilograms . The coat is generally dun in color with pangaré features, varying from dark brown around the mane to pale brown on the flanks and yellowish-white on the belly and around the muzzle. The legs of Przewalski's horse are often faintly striped, also typical of primitive markings. The tail is about 90 cm long, with a longer dock and shorter hair than seen in domesticated horses.

The Przewalski's horse has 66 chromosomes, compared to 64 in all other horse species.
Przewalskis_Horse  Equus ferus przewalskii,Przewalskis horse

Distribution

All Przewalski horses in the world are descended from nine of the 31 horses in captivity in 1945. These nine horses were mostly descended from approximately 15 captured around 1900. A cooperative venture between the Zoological Society of London and Mongolian scientists has resulted in successful reintroduction of these horses from zoos into their natural habitat in Mongolia; and as of 2011 there is an estimated free-ranging population of over 300 in the wild. From a population of 31 horses in captivity in 1945, the total number of these horses by the early 1990s was over 1,500.
Przewalskis_Horse  Equus ferus przewalskii,Przewalskis horse

Behavior

In the wild, Przewalski's horses live in small, permanent family groups consisting of one adult stallion, one to three mares, and their common offspring. Offspring stay in the family group until they are no longer dependent, usually at two or three years old. Bachelor stallions, and sometimes old stallions, join bachelor groups. Family groups can join together to form a herd that move together.

The patterns of their daily lives exhibit horse behavior similar to that of feral horse herds. Stallions herd, drive and defend all members of their family, while the mare often displays leadership in the family. Stallions and mares stay with their preferred partner for years.

Horses maintain visual contact with their family and herd at all times and have a host of ways to communicate with one another, including vocalizations, scent marking, and a wide range of visual and tactile signals. Each kick, groom, tilt of the ear, or other contact with another horse is a means of communicating. This constant communication leads to complex social behaviors among Przewalski's horses.

Evolution

In the 15th century, Johann Schiltberger recorded one of the first European sightings of the horses in the journal of his trip to Mongolia as a prisoner of the Mongol Khan. The horse is named after the Russian colonel Nikolai Przhevalsky . He was the explorer and naturalist who first described the horse in 1881, after having gone on an expedition to find it, based on rumors of its existence. Many of these horses were captured around 1900 by Carl Hagenbeck and placed in zoos. As noted above, about twelve to fifteen reproduced and formed today's population.

The native population declined in the 20th century due to a combination of factors, with the wild population in Mongolia dying out in the 1960s. The last herd was sighted in 1967 and the last individual horse in 1969. Expeditions after this failed to locate any horses, and the species had been designated "extinct in the wild" for over 30 years.

After 1945 only two captive populations in zoos remained, in Munich and in Prague. The most valuable group, in Askania Nova, Ukraine, was shot by German soldiers during World War II occupation, and the group in the United States had died out.

By the end of the 1950s, only 12 individual Przewalski's horses were left in the world.


In 1977, the was founded in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, by Jan and Inge Bouman. The Foundation started a program of exchange between captive populations in zoos throughout the world to reduce inbreeding, and later began a breeding program of its own. As a result of such efforts, the extant herd has retained a far greater genetic diversity than its genetic bottleneck made likely.

In 1992, sixteen horses were released into the wild in Mongolia, followed by additional animals later on. One of the areas to which they were reintroduced became Khustain Nuruu National Park in 1998. Another reintroduction site is Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area, located at the fringes of the Gobi desert. Lastly, in 2004 and 2005, 22 horses were released by the to a third reintroduction site in the buffer zone of the Khar Us Nuur National Park, in the northern edge of the Gobi ecoregion.

And it is Prague Zoo, which has been playing a key role in the next reintroductions of Przewalski´s Horses to Mongolia. Since 2011 it has transported 12 horses in three rounds, in cooperation with partners and it plans to continue to return horses to the wild in future. In the framework of the project Return of the Wild Horses it sustains its activities by supporting local inhabitants. The Zoo, having the longest uninterrupted history of breeding of Przewalski´s Horses in the world, has made an essential contribution to the survival of the species until today and keeps the studbook of this species.

The reintroduced horses successfully reproduced, and the status of the animal was changed from "extinct in the wild" to "endangered" in 2005. On the IUCN Red List, they were reclassified from "extinct in the wild" to "critically endangered" after a reassessment in 2008 and from "critically endangered" to "endangered" after a 2011 reassessment.

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Status: Endangered
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderPerissodactyla
FamilyEquidae
GenusEquus
SpeciesE. ferus