Amur Tiger

Panthera tigris altaica

The Siberian tiger, also known as the Amur tiger, is a tiger subspecies inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region with a small subpopulation in southwest Primorye province in the Russian Far East.
I smell humans Portrait of the gorgeous Siberian Tiger now showing at the new tiger display at the Beekse Bergen. As you can see, this one is heavily post processed. I'll post some more natural shots tomorrow. Beekse Bergen,Panthera tigris altaica,Siberian tiger

Appearance

The Siberian tiger is reddish-rusty or rusty-yellow in colour, with narrow black transverse stripes. The body length is not less than 150 cm, condylobasal length of skull 250 mm, zygomatic width 180 mm, and length of upper carnassial tooth over 26 mm long. It has an extended supple body standing on rather short legs with a fairly long tail. It is typically 5–10 cm taller than the Bengal tiger, which is about 107–110 cm tall.

Measurements taken by scientists of the "Siberian Tiger Project" in Sikhote-Alin range from 178 to 208 cm in head and body length measured in straight line, with an average of 195 cm for males; and for females ranging from 167 to 182 cm with an average of 174 cm. The average tail measures 99 cm in males and 91 cm in females. The longest male “Maurice” measured 309 cm in total length ) and had a chest girth of 127 cm. The longest female “Maria Ivanna” measured 270 cm in total length ) and had a chest girth of 108 cm. These measurements show that the present Amur tiger is longer than the Bengal tiger and the African lion.
According to modern research of wild Siberian tigers in Sikhote-Alin, an average adult male of more than 35 months of age weighs 176.4 kg, the average asymptotic limit being 222.3 kg; an adult tigress weighs 117.9 kg. The mean weight of historical Siberian tigers is supposed to be higher: 215.3 kg for male tigers and 137.5 kg for females. In May 2011, a male called “Banzai” weighing 207 kg was radio-collared. This individual is heavier but smaller in size than a previously radio-collared male.

Measurements of more than fifty captured individuals suggest that body size is similar to that of Bengal tigers.

The largest male, with largely assured references, measured 350 cm "over curves", equivalent to 330 cm between pegs. The tail length in fully grown males is about 1 m. Weights of up to 318 kg have been recorded and exceptionally large males weighing up to 384 kg are mentioned in the literature but, according to Mazák, none of these cases can be confirmed via reliable sources.

A further unconfirmed report tells of a male tiger shot in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains in 1950 weighing 384 kg with an estimated length of 3.48 m. In some cases, Siberian tigers in captivity reached a body weight of up to 465 kg, such as the tiger "Jaipur".
Amur Tiger - feeding time, Beekse Bergen, Netherlands  Amur Tiger,Beekse Bergen,Europe,Netherlands,Panthera tigris altaica,World

Distribution

The geographical range of Amur tigers in the Russian Far East stretches south to north for almost 1,000 km throughout the length of Primorsky Krai and into southern Khabarovsk Krai east and south of the Amur River. They also occur within the Eastern Manchurian mountain system, which crosses into Russia from China at several places in southwest Primorye. In both regions, peaks are generally 500 to 800 m above sea level, with only a few reaching 1,000 m or more. This region represents a merger zone of two bioregions: the East Asian coniferous-decidous complex and the northern boreal complex, resulting in a mosaic of forest types that vary with elevation, topography and past history. Key habitats for the Amur tiger are Korean pine broadleaf forests with a complex composition and structure. The ungulate complex is represented by red deer, wild boar, sika deer, roe deer, Manchurian moose, musk deer and ghoral.

The number of Amur tigers in China is estimated at 18–22, and it is not known if any still survive in North Korea. In 2005, there were 331–393 Amur tigers in the Russian Far East, comprising a breeding adult population of about 250, fewer than 100 likely to be sub-adults, more than 20 likely to be less than 3 years of age. More than 90% of the population occurs in the Sikhote Alin mountain region.In 2010, Russia exchanged 2 captive Amur tigers for Persian Leopards with the Iran government, as conservation groups of both countries have agreed on restocking these animals back into the wild within the next 5 years. Some experts, however, doubt the plan as they feel that this is a political publicity exercise. On December 30, 2010, one of the tigers exchanged died in Eram Zoo in Tehran.

Stimulated by recent findings that the Amur tiger is the closest relative of the Caspian tiger, discussions started if the Amur tiger could be an appropriate subspecies for reintroduction into a safe place in Central Asia. The Amu-Darya Delta was suggested as a potential site for such a project. A feasibility study was initiated to investigate if the area is suitable and if such an initiative would receive support from relevant decision makers. A viable tiger population of about 100 animals would require at least 5,000 ha of large tracts of contiguous habitat with rich prey populations. Such habitat is not available at this stage and can not be provided in the short term. The proposed region is therefore unsuitable for the reintroduction, at least at this stage of developments.
Siberian tiger shows powerful teeth Siberian tiger shows his powerful teeth Geotagged,Panthera tigris altaica,Siberian tiger,United States

Status

Tigers are included on CITES Appendix I, banning international trade. All tiger range states and countries with consumer markets have banned domestic trade as well. At the 14th Conference of the Parties to CITES in 2007, stronger enforcement measures were called for, as well as an end to tiger farming.

In 1992, the "Siberian Tiger Project" was founded, with the aim of providing a comprehensive picture of the ecology of the Amur tiger and the role of tigers in the Russian Far East through scientific studies. By capturing and outfitting tigers with radio collars, their social structure, land use patterns, food habits, reproduction, mortality patterns and their relation with other inhabitants of the ecosystem, including humans is studied. These data compilations will hopefully contribute toward minimizing poaching threats due to traditional hunting. The "Siberian Tiger Project" has been productive in increasing local capacity to address human-tiger conflict with a "Tiger Response Team", part of the Russian government’s "Inspection Tiger", which responds to all tiger-human conflicts; by continuing to enhance the large database on tiger ecology and conservation with the goal of creating a comprehensive Siberian tiger conservation plan; and training the next generation of Russian conservation biologists.

In August 2010, China and Russia agreed to enhance conservation and cooperation in protected areas in a transboundary area for Amur tigers. China has undertaken a series of public awareness campaigns including celebration
of the first "Global Tiger Day" in July 2010, and "International Forum on Tiger Conservation and Tiger Culture" and "China 2010 Hunchun Amur Tiger Culture Festival" in August 2010.
More Amur A Siberian (or Amur) Tiger, relaxing after a good meal. There are around 350 left in the wild. They live mostly in the Russian Far East, where they have been protected in recent years by the work of the Siberian Tiger Project. amur tiger,animal,big cats,conservation,endangered,nature,predator,siberian

Behavior

Siberian tigers are known to travel up to 1,000 km, a distance that marks the exchange limit over ecologically unbroken country.

In 1992 and 1993, the maximum total population density of the Sikhote-Alin tiger population was estimated at 0.62 individuals in 100 km2. The maximum "adult" population estimated in 1993 reached 0.3 individuals in 100 km2, with a sex ratio of averaging 2.4 females per male. These density values were dramatically lower than what had been reported for other subspecies at the time.

Between January 1992 and November 1994, 11 tigers were captured, fitted with radio-collars and monitored for more than 15 months in the eastern slopes of the Sikhote-Alin mountain range. Results of this study indicate that their distribution is closely associated with distribution of red deer. Distribution of wild pigs was not as strong a predictor of tiger distribution. Although they prey on both Siberian roe deer and sika deer, overlap of these ungulates with tigers was low. Distribution of moose was poorly associated with tiger distribution. The distribution of preferred habitat of key prey species was an accurate predictor of tiger distribution.

In 2004, dramatic changes in land tenure, density, and reproductive output in the core area of the Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik Siberian Tiger Project were detected, suggesting that when tigers are well protected from human-induced mortality for long periods, female adult density may increase dramatically. When survivorship of adult females was high, the mothers divided their territories with their daughters once the daughters reached maturity. By 2007, density of tigers was estimated at 0.8±0.4 individuals in 100 km2 in the southern part of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik, and 0.6±0.3 individuals in 100 km2 in the central part of the protected area.

Prey species include Manchurian wapiti, musk deer, goral and smaller prey like hares, rabbits, pikas and salmon.
Endangered Siberian Its original habitat in the Primorye province in the Russian Far East, this black striped tiger is the largest cat species still alive.  Only a few hundred of them survive in the wild as of now. 

I caught this one on film in Orsa Bjornpark in sweden. at the end of a beautiful mildly cloudy day with the sun peeking through right now. I monochromed this one due to its poor quality even at low iso. Geotagged,HDR,Orsa bjornpark,Panthera tigris altaica,Siberian tiger,Sweden

Habitat

The geographical range of Amur tigers in the Russian Far East stretches south to north for almost 1,000 km throughout the length of Primorsky Krai and into southern Khabarovsk Krai east and south of the Amur River. They also occur within the Eastern Manchurian mountain system, which crosses into Russia from China at several places in southwest Primorye. In both regions, peaks are generally 500 to 800 m above sea level, with only a few reaching 1,000 m or more. This region represents a merger zone of two bioregions: the East Asian coniferous-decidous complex and the northern boreal complex, resulting in a mosaic of forest types that vary with elevation, topography and past history. Key habitats for the Amur tiger are Korean pine broadleaf forests with a complex composition and structure. The ungulate complex is represented by red deer, wild boar, sika deer, roe deer, Manchurian moose, musk deer and ghoral.

The number of Amur tigers in China is estimated at 18–22, and it is not known if any still survive in North Korea. In 2005, there were 331–393 Amur tigers in the Russian Far East, comprising a breeding adult population of about 250, fewer than 100 likely to be sub-adults, more than 20 likely to be less than 3 years of age. More than 90% of the population occurs in the Sikhote Alin mountain region.Siberian tigers are known to travel up to 1,000 km, a distance that marks the exchange limit over ecologically unbroken country.

In 1992 and 1993, the maximum total population density of the Sikhote-Alin tiger population was estimated at 0.62 individuals in 100 km2. The maximum "adult" population estimated in 1993 reached 0.3 individuals in 100 km2, with a sex ratio of averaging 2.4 females per male. These density values were dramatically lower than what had been reported for other subspecies at the time.

Between January 1992 and November 1994, 11 tigers were captured, fitted with radio-collars and monitored for more than 15 months in the eastern slopes of the Sikhote-Alin mountain range. Results of this study indicate that their distribution is closely associated with distribution of red deer. Distribution of wild pigs was not as strong a predictor of tiger distribution. Although they prey on both Siberian roe deer and sika deer, overlap of these ungulates with tigers was low. Distribution of moose was poorly associated with tiger distribution. The distribution of preferred habitat of key prey species was an accurate predictor of tiger distribution.

In 2004, dramatic changes in land tenure, density, and reproductive output in the core area of the Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik Siberian Tiger Project were detected, suggesting that when tigers are well protected from human-induced mortality for long periods, female adult density may increase dramatically. When survivorship of adult females was high, the mothers divided their territories with their daughters once the daughters reached maturity. By 2007, density of tigers was estimated at 0.8±0.4 individuals in 100 km2 in the southern part of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik, and 0.6±0.3 individuals in 100 km2 in the central part of the protected area.

Prey species include Manchurian wapiti, musk deer, goral and smaller prey like hares, rabbits, pikas and salmon.
Siberian Tiger frontal view Personally, I find tigers one of the most beautiful species to walk this earth. Not only are they highly adapted, well-camouflaged killing machines with extraordinary senses. They are also simply gorgeous. Function meets form in the perfect balance. It's nature's ultimate painting.  Beekse Bergen,Panthera tigris altaica,Siberian tiger

Reproduction

Siberian tigers reach sexual maturity at four years of age. They mate at any time of the year. A female signals her receptiveness by leaving urine deposits and scratch marks on trees. She will spend 5 or 6 days with the male, during which she is receptive for three days. Gestation lasts from 3 to 3½ months. Litter size is normally two or four cubs but there can be as many as six. The cubs are born blind in a sheltered den and are left alone when the female leaves to hunt for food. Cubs are divided equally between genders at birth. However, by adulthood there are usually two to four females for every male. The female cubs remain with their mothers longer, and later they establish territories close to their original ranges. Males, on the other hand, travel unaccompanied and range farther earlier in their lives, making them more vulnerable to poachers and other tigers.
Siberian Tiger face closeup Siberian tiger close up Panthera tigris altaica,Siberian tiger

Predators

A broad genetic sampling of 95 wild Russian tigers found markedly low genetic diversity, with the effective population size extraordinarily low in comparison to the census population size, with the population behaving as if it were just 27–35 individuals. Further exacerbating the problem is that more than 90% of the population occurs in the Sikhote Alin mountain region, and there is little movement of tigers across the development corridor, which separates this sub-population from the much smaller sub-population found in southwest Primorye province.

The winter of 2006-2007 was marked by heavy poaching. Poaching of tigers and their wild prey species is considered to be driving the decline, although heavy snows in the winter of 2009 could have biased the data.In the early years of the Russian Civil War, both Red and White armies based in Vladivostok nearly wiped out the local Siberian tigers. In 1935, when the Manchurian Chinese were driven back across the Amur and the Ussuri, the tigers had already withdrawn from their northern and western range. The few that remained in the East Manchurian mountains were cut off from the main population by the building of railroads. Within a few years, the last viable Siberian tiger population in Russia was confined to Ussuriland. Legal tiger hunting within the Soviet Union would continue until 1947 when it was officially prohibited. In the mid 1980s, it was estimated that the Siberian tiger population consisted of approximately 250 animals. In 1987, law and order almost entirely broke down due to the impending dissolution of the Soviet Union. Subsequent illegal deforestation and bribery of park rangers made the poaching of Siberian tigers easier, once again putting the subspecies at risk from extinction.

Decades of development and war have destroyed the population in Korea. Heat sensing camera traps set up in the Demilitarized Zone in South Korea did not record any tigers.
Tiger Taken at Jukani Wildlife Sanctuary, South Africa Geotagged,Panthera tigris altaica,Siberian tiger,South Africa,apex cats,predators

Cultural

The Tungusic people considered the Siberian tiger a near-deity and often referred to it as "Grandfather" or "Old man". The Udege and Nanai called it "Amba". The Manchu considered the Siberian tiger as Hu Lin, the king. The most elite unit of the Chinese Imperial Army in Manchu Qing Dynasty is called Hu Shen Ying, literally The Tiger God Battalion.

References:

Some text fragments are auto parsed from Wikipedia.

Status: Endangered | Trend: Stable
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderCarnivora
FamilyFelidae
GenusPanthera
SpeciesP. tigris