American pika

Ochotona princeps

The American pika , a diurnal species of pika, is found in the mountains of western North America, usually in boulder fields at or above the tree line. They are herbivorous, smaller relatives of rabbits and hares.
American Pika These are ridiculously cute… they look like something in between a mouse and a bunny and sound like a squeaky toy. They are also in danger because of climate change -  even short exposures to temperatures over 78F can kill them. They can hide in the talus during brief hot spells, but they don't burrow and need to gather food for the winter (they don't hibernate), so as the temperature rises, so must the pika. They will migrate up the mountains if they can, but if they reach the top and it's still too warm, they've no where else to go. Now this isn't exactly new, it has been happening gradually for around 12,000 years, so I don't think the pika will become extinct any time soon, but it's habitat loss has been picking up a lot of speed in the most recent 100 of those years and there is enough concern that the US is considering protecting them under the endangered species act. American pika,Geotagged,Ochotona princeps,Spring,United States

Appearance

The American pika, known in the 19th century as the "little chief hare", has a small, round, ovate body. Their body length ranges from 162 to 216 millimeters . Their hind feet range from 25 to 35 mm . They usually weigh about 170 grams ....hieroglyph snipped... Body size can vary among populations. In populations with sexual dimorphism, males are slightly larger than females.

The American pika is intermediate in size among pikas. The hind legs of the pika do not seem to be much longer than its front legs and its hind feet are relatively short when compared to most other lagomorphs. It has densely furred soles on its feet except for black pads at the ends of the toes. The ears are moderately large and sub-orbicular and are hairy on both surfaces, normally dark with white margins. The pika has a tail that is "buried" and is longer relative to body size compared to other lagomorphs. Its has a slightly rounded skull with a broad and flat pre-orbital region. The fur color of the pika is the same for both sexes but varies by subspecies and season. The dorsal fur of the pika ranges from grayish to cinnamon-brown, often colored with tawny or orchraceous hues, during the summer. During winter, the fur becomes grayer and longer. The dense under-fur is usually slate-gray or lead colored. It also has whitish ventral fur.
American pika  American pika,Fall,Geotagged,Ochotona princeps,United States

Distribution

The American pika can be found throughout the mountains of western North America, from central British Columbia in Canada to the US states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California and New Mexico.

Pikas inhabit talus fields that are fringed by suitable vegetation on alpine areas. They will also live in piles of broken rock. Sometimes, they will live in man-made substrate such as mine tailings and piles of scrap lumber. Pikas usually have their den and nest sites below rock around 0.2–1 m in diameter but often sit on larger and more prominent rocks. They generally reside in scree near or above the tree line. Pikas are restricted to cool moist microhabitats on high peaks or watercourses. Intolerant of high diurnal temperatures, in the northern portion of their range they may be found near sea level, but in the south they are rare below 2,500 metres . Pikas rely on existing spaces in the talus for homes and do not dig burrows. However, they can enlarge their home by digging.
Pika with some thorny bedding A pika drags a freshly cut thistle to its den as it prepares for winter. Pika keep very busy during the warmer months by dragging all kinds of plants and grasses to its den where it will stay all winter eating what it has stored. Captured in the Hoodoos of Yellowstone National Park. American pika,Geotagged,Ochotona princeps,Summer,United States,Wyoming,Yellowstone National Park,mammals

Status

As they live in the high and cooler mountain regions, they are very sensitive to high temperatures, and are considered to be one of the best early warning systems for detecting global warming in the western United States. Temperature increases are suspected to be one cause cause of American pikas moving higher in elevation in an attempt to find suitable habitat, as well as cooler temperatures. American pikas, however, cannot easily migrate in response to climate change, as their habitat is currently restricted to small, disconnected habitat "islands" in numerous mountain ranges. Pikas can die in six hours when exposed to temperatures above 25.5°C if individuals cannot find refuge from heat. In warmer environments, such as during midday sun and at lower
elevation limits, pikas typically become inactive and withdraw into cooler talus openings. Because of behavioral adaptation, American pikas also persist in the hot climates of Craters of the Moon and Lava Beds National Monuments . Average and extreme maximum surface temperatures in August at these sites are 32°C and 38°C , respectively.

Recent studies suggest some populations are declining due to various factors, most notably global warming. A 2003 study, published in the ''Journal of Mammalogy'', showed nine of 25 sampled populations of American pika had disappeared in the Great Basin, leading biologists to conduct further investigations to determine if the species as a whole is vulnerable.

In 2010, the US government considered, then decided not to add the American pika under the US Endangered Species Act;...hieroglyph snipped... in the IUCN Red List it is still considered a Species of Least Concern.

The Pikas in Peril Project, funded through the National Park Service Climate Change Response Program, began data collection in May 2010. A large team of academic researchers and National Park Service staff are working together to address questions regarding the vulnerability of the American pika to future climate change scenarios projected for the western United States. The study is being carried out in eight parks, with results expected in 2012.
Pika; sample image for comparison I edited this image to see if it views better than the version I uploaded previously.  I added sharpening, boosted saturation, and bumped up the levels.
Please comment if you see a noticeable difference between the two files (best viewed side by side, simultaneously, with two windows open) American pika,Ochotona princeps

Habitat

The American pika can be found throughout the mountains of western North America, from central British Columbia in Canada to the US states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California and New Mexico.

Pikas inhabit talus fields that are fringed by suitable vegetation on alpine areas. They will also live in piles of broken rock. Sometimes, they will live in man-made substrate such as mine tailings and piles of scrap lumber. Pikas usually have their den and nest sites below rock around 0.2–1 m in diameter but often sit on larger and more prominent rocks. They generally reside in scree near or above the tree line. Pikas are restricted to cool moist microhabitats on high peaks or watercourses. Intolerant of high diurnal temperatures, in the northern portion of their range they may be found near sea level, but in the south they are rare below 2,500 metres . Pikas rely on existing spaces in the talus for homes and do not dig burrows. However, they can enlarge their home by digging.
American Pika eating Ochotona princeps, American Pika, on red rocks with a mouth full of vegetation American pika,Ochotona princeps,lagomorph

Food

The American pika is a generalist herbivore. It eats a large variety of green plants, including different kinds of grasses, sedges, thistles and fireweed. Pikas can meet their water demands from the vegetation they eat. However they drink water if it is available. Pikas have two different ways of foraging. They will directly consume food or they will cache food in haypiles to use for a food source in the winter . The pika feeds throughout the year while haying is limited to the summer months. Since they do not hibernate, pikas have greater energy demands than other montane mammals. In addition, they also make 13 trips per hours to collect vegetation when haying. It seems that the timing of haying correlates to the amount of precipitation from the previous winter. Pikas will start and then quit haying earlier in years following little snow and early spring. In areas at lower elevations, haying begins before the snow has melted at high altitudes while at higher elevations, haying continues after it ends in lower elevations.

When haying, pikas harvest plants in a deliberate sequence, corresponding to their seasonal phenology. They seem to assess the nutritional value of available food and harvest accordingly. Pikas select plants that have the higher caloric, protein, lipid and water content. Forbs and tall grass tend to be hayed more than eaten directly. Haypiles tend to be stored under the talus near the talus-meadow interface although they may be constructed on the talus surface. Males generally store more vegetation than females and adults usually store more than juveniles. Pikas deposit two kinds of fecal droppings: Hard brown round pellets and caecal pellets that are soft black shiny strings that form in the caecum. Caecal pellets have more energy value than stored plant food and the pika may consume them directly or store them for later.
The Curious Pika This Pika was running about, getting a mouthful of grass, then returning to its cave. American pika,Geotagged,Ochotona princeps,United States

Evolution

American pikas are diurnal. The total area of land which an American pika uses is known as a home range. Approximately 55% of its home range is territory which the pika defends against intruders. Territory size can vary from 410–709 m² and is dependent on configuration, distance to vegetation and quality of vegetation. The home ranges of pika may overlap with the distances of the home ranges of a mating pair being shorter than that of the nearest neighbors of the same sex. Spatial distances between adults of a pair is greatest during early and mid summer and reduces during late summer and early autumn. Pikas defend their territories with aggression. Actual aggressive encounters are rare and usually occur between members of the same sex and those unfamiliar with each other. A pika may intrude on another’s territory but usually when the resident is not active. During haying, territorial behavior increases.

Adult pikas of the opposite sex with territories adjacent form mated pairs. When there is more than one male available, females will exhibit mate choice. Pikas are reflex ovulators, that is ovulation only occurs after copulation, and they are also seasonally polyestrous. A female has two litters per year and these litters average three young each. Breeding takes place one month before the snow melts and gestation lasts approximately 30 days. Parturition occurs as early as March in lower elevations but occurs from April to June at higher elevations. Lactation significantly reduces a female's fat reserves and they only nurse the second litter if the first does not survive, despite exhibiting postpartum estrus. Pikas are born slightly altricial, being blind, slightly haired, and having fully erupted teeth. They weigh between 10 and 12 grams at birth. At around nine days, they are able to open their eyes. Mothers forage most of the day and return to the nest once every two hours to nurse the young. Young become independent after four weeks, around the same time they are weaned. Young may remain in their natal or an adjoining home range. When in their home range, young occupy areas away from their relatives as much as possible. Dispersal appears to be caused by competition for territories.

Pikas are vocal, using both calls and songs to communicate among themselves. A call is used to warn when a predator is lurking nearby, and a song is used during the breeding season , and during autumn . Predators of the pika include eagles, hawks, coyotes, bobcats, foxes, and weasels.

References:

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Status: Unknown
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderLagomorpha
FamilyOchotonidae
GenusOchotona
Species