Chacma baboon

Papio ursinus

The chacma baboon , also known as the Cape baboon, is, like all other baboons, from the Old World monkey family. It is one of the largest of all monkeys.

Located primarily in southern Africa, the chacma baboon has a wide variety of social behaviors, including a dominance hierarchy, collective foraging, adoption of young by females, and friendship pairings. These behaviors form parts of a complex evolutionary ecology.
baboon_mother_and_baby Reunion. Botswana,Chacma baboon,Geotagged,Papio ursinus,Winter

Appearance

The chacma baboon is perhaps the longest species of monkey, with a male body length of 50–115 cm and tail length of 45–84 cm . It also one of the heaviest; the male weighs from 21 to 45 kg . Baboons are sexually dimorphic, and females are considerably smaller than males. The female chacma weighs from 12 to 25 kg . It is similar in size to the olive baboon and of similar weight to the more compact mandrill, which is usually crowned the largest of all monkeys. The chacma baboon is generally dark brown to gray in color, with a patch of rough hair on the nape of its neck. Unlike the males of northern baboon species , chacma males do not have a mane. Perhaps the most distinctive feature of this baboon is its long, downward-sloping face. The canine teeth of male chacma baboons have a mean length of 3.86 ± 0.30 cm at the time they emigrate from their natal troop. This is the time of greatest tooth length as the teeth tend to wear or be broken thereafter.

The three subspecies are differentiated by size and color. The Cape chacma is a large, heavy, dark-brown, and has black feet. The gray-footed chacma is slightly smaller than the Cape chacma, lighter in color and build, and has gray feet. The Ruacana chacma generally appears to be a smaller, less darkly colored version of the Cape chacma.
Baboon A baboon at the cape of good hope Chacma baboon,Geotagged,Papio ursinus,South Africa,Winter

Distribution

The chacma baboon inhabits a wide array of habitats including woodland, savanna, steppes, and subdesert, from the grassy alpine slopes of the Drakensberg to the Kalahari desert. During the night the chacma baboon needs hills, cliffs, or large trees in which to sleep. During the day water availability may limit its range in arid areas. It is found in southern Africa, ranging from South Africa north to Angola, Zambia, and Mozambique. The subspecies are divided across this range. The Cape chacma is found in southern South Africa; the gray-footed chacma, is present from northern South Africa, through the Okavango Delta in Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique , to southwest Zambia; and the Ruacana chacma is found in northern Namibia and southern Angola.

Cape Chacma Baboon, Cape of Good Hope.jpg|Subspecies , is found in southern South Africa
Baboons trapped up tree by lions.jpg|Trapped up tree by Kalahari lions Tswalu Kalahari Reserve, South Africa
look into the eyes A chacma baboon in the Okavango delta Botswana,Chacma baboon,Geotagged,Papio ursinus,Summer

Status

The chacma baboon is widespread and does not rank among threatened animal species. However, in some confined locations, such as South Africa's Southern Cape Peninsula, local populations are dwindling due to habitat loss and predation from other protected species, such as leopards and lions. Some troops have become a suburban menace, overturning trash cans and entering houses in their search for food. These troops can be aggressive and dangerous, and such negative encounters have resulted in hunting by frustrated local residents. This isolated population is thought to face extinction within 10 years.


The chacma is listed under Appendix II of CITES as it occurs in many protected areas across its range. The only area in South Africa where they are monitored is in the Cape Peninsula, where they are protected.

Observations by those working hands-on in South Africa's rehabilitation centers have found this species is damaged by human intervention; troop structures are influenced, and over the years a significant loss in numbers has occurred. Because they live near human habitats, baboons are shot, poisoned, electrocuted, run over, and captured for the pet industry, research laboratories and muthi . Despite this, assessors working for the IUCN believe there are no major threats that could result in a range-wide decline of the species.
Best friends! I just had to share this with you, a very rare sighting of a wild baboon enjoying the sun atop a semi-wild horse. A precious moment ! Chacma baboon,Geotagged,Papio ursinus,South Africa,Winter,baboon,friends,horse

Behavior

The chacma baboon usually lives in social groups, called troops, which are composed of multiple adult males, adult females, and their offspring. Occasionally, however, very small groups form that consist of only a single adult male and several adult females. Chacma troops are characterized by a dominance hierarchy. Female ranking within the troop is inherited through the mother and remains relatively fixed, while male ranking is often in flux, especially when the dominant male is replaced. Chacmas are unusual among baboons in that neither males nor females form strong relationships with members of the same sex. Instead, the strongest social bonds are often between unrelated adult males and females. Infanticide is also common compared to other baboon species, as newly dominant males will often attempt to kill young baboons sired by the previously dominant male. Baboon troops possess a complex group behavior and communicate by means of body attitudes, facial expressions, vocalizations and touch.Dominance does play a role in group foraging decisions. A dominant individual leads the group to easily monopolized resources. The group usually follows, even though many subordinate members cannot gain access to that particular resource. As in morning dispersal, the inclination of group members to follow the leader is positively associated with social interactions with that dominant individual.

Collective foraging behavior, with many individuals taking advantage of the same resource at once, has also been observed. However, this behavior can be chiefly attributed to shared dietary needs rather than social affiliation. Pregnant females, who share similar dietary needs, are more likely to synchronize their behavior than fertile females. Foraging synchronization decreases in areas with lower food density.
Ouch! The moment when a young mother wishes they would develop formula for baboons. Geotagged,South Africa,Winter,baboons,chacma baboon,monkeys,primates

Habitat

The chacma baboon inhabits a wide array of habitats including woodland, savanna, steppes, and subdesert, from the grassy alpine slopes of the Drakensberg to the Kalahari desert. During the night the chacma baboon needs hills, cliffs, or large trees in which to sleep. During the day water availability may limit its range in arid areas. It is found in southern Africa, ranging from South Africa north to Angola, Zambia, and Mozambique. The subspecies are divided across this range. The Cape chacma is found in southern South Africa; the gray-footed chacma, is present from northern South Africa, through the Okavango Delta in Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique , to southwest Zambia; and the Ruacana chacma is found in northern Namibia and southern Angola.

Cape Chacma Baboon, Cape of Good Hope.jpg|Subspecies , is found in southern South Africa
Baboons trapped up tree by lions.jpg|Trapped up tree by Kalahari lions Tswalu Kalahari Reserve, South Africa
Leapfrog? Sorry, had to share this with you...I think we could all do with a good laugh occasionally! And no, they are not playing leapfrog! Chacma baboon,Funny,Geotagged,Papio ursinus,South Africa,Winter,horses,monkeys,primates,south africa

Food

The chacma baboon is omnivorous with a preference for fruits, while also eating insects, seeds, grass, smaller vertebrate animals, and fungi (the desert truffle Kalaharituber pfeilii; at the Cape of Good Hope in particular, it is also known for taking shellfish and other marine invertebrates. It is generally a scavenger when it comes to game meat, and rarely engages in hunting large animals. One incident of a chacma baboon killing a human infant has been reported, but the event is so rare, the locals believed it was due to witchcraft. Normally, chacma baboons will flee at the approach of humans, though this is changing due to the easy availability of food near human dwellings.
Thoughtful Chacma Baboon in Cape of Good Hope NP Chacma baboons are easily observed at Cape of Good Hope NP in South Africa - on eof many good reasons to visit if you find yourself in Cape Town with a free day.  Cape,Cape of Good Hope NP,Chacma baboon,Geotagged,Papio ursinus,South Africa,Spring,Western Cape

Cultural

In 2011, the British Television Channel ITV1 aired an eight-episode miniseries, hosted by popular British comedian Bill Bailey. The series followed the lives of three different family groups of chacma baboons in South Africa. The series focuses on the baboons' abilities to adapt to human settlement and their complex social lives. It is generally structured within a narrative, with each adult baboon having a name and being treated as an 'actor' in the story. The three families of baboons have each developed their own ways of life; the 'Smitz' group spends most its time trying to rob food from tourists along a coastal highway, the 'Tokai' group has remained in a more natural forest area, and the 'Da Gama' group lives on the rooftops of an apartment complex. The program is the second attempt by Bailey to produce a semiserious nature documentary, and it received generally favourable reviews.

References:

Some text fragments are auto parsed from Wikipedia.

Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderPrimates
FamilyCercopithecidae
GenusPapio
SpeciesP. ursinus