Asian long-horned beetle

Anoplophora glabripennis

The Asian long-horned beetle , also known as the starry sky, sky beetle, or ALB, is a species native to eastern China, Japan, and Korea. This species has now been accidentally introduced into the United States, where it was first discovered in 1996, as well as Canada, Trinidad, and several countries in Europe, including Austria, France, Germany, Italy, and the UK. This beetle is believed to have been spread from Asia in solid wood packaging material.
小动物天牛  Anoplophora glabripennis,Asian long-horned beetle,China,Geotagged

Appearance

Adult ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' are very large insects with bodies ranging from 1 to 1.5 inches in length and antennae which can be as long as four inches . They are shiny black with about 20 white spots on each wing cover and long antennae conspicuously banded black and white. These beetles can fly, but generally only for short distances, which is a common limitation for Cerambycidae of their size and weight. The upper sections of the legs of the adults are whitish-blue. ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' can be distinguished from related species by the markings on the wing covers and the pattern of the antennae.
Anoplophora glabripennis Enschede 2008 This one was brought into an animal shelter in Enschede after being found in a city park. The surroundings were investigated for more beetles or exit holes as the species is under strict rules of monitoring and extermination in Europe. Anoplophora,Anoplophora glabripennis,Asian long-horned beetle,Cerambycidae,Coleoptera,Invasive species,Lamiinae,Monochamini

Behavior

Asian long-horned beetle larvae do not pupate before they reach a critical weight. Accordingly, they may overwinter either as larvae or as pupae, and depending on the weather they generally take about one to two years to complete their life cycles. In extreme cases they might take some three years. In their overwintering phase they are inactive, a dormant condition known as diapause. They resume their life cycle in the following summer. Larvae first create a feeding gallery in the cambial region and later an apparently oval-shaped tunnel in the sapwood and heartwood. However, the oval cross-section might be largely illusory, caused by the angle of cutting through the tunnel; The emergence holes are normal to the wood surface, and look completely round. Larvae expel frass from their tunnels near the original oviposition site. Most individuals overwinter as larvae. Pupation occurs at the end of the larval tunnel usually in late spring and early summer.


Adult longevity and fecundity are influenced by conditions such as the larval host plant and temperature. ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' adult females undergo a period of obligatory maturation feeding after emergence. On emergence, females can copulate, although their ovaries are immature and feeding is necessary for ovarian maturation.

Laboratory studies have estimated the female maturation period lasts 9–15 days.

Adult males have mature spermatozoa before emergence, and feeding is necessary only to sustain their normal activity . Asian long-horned beetle larvae and adults chew and excavate wood with mandibles of modest size, but great strength. This too is characteristic of the family Cerambycidae. Adults, especially males, display long antennae used to sense the sex pheromones of potential mates. The conspicuous antennae probably act as aposematic signals to predators and in sexual rivalry as well. Accordingly the main targets for predation by birds for example, are the larvae.Adult ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' feed on leaves, twigs, and other plant matter. In their native habitat larvae of ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' feed on the healthy bark, phloem, and xylem of more than 24 species of hardwood trees. This causes the death of many trees. Also, it is extremely hard to kill off ALB larvae, another reason for this beetle's success.

Habitat

In its native range, ALB infests trees primarily in the genera ''Acer'' , ''Populus'' , ''Salix'' , and ''Ulmus'' . In the United States, ALB has completed development on species of these genera and also ''Aesculus'' , ''Albizia'' , ''Betula'' , ''Cercidiphyllum'' , ''Fraxinus'' , ''Platanus'' , ''Prunus'' , and ''Sorbus'' . ''Acer'' is the most commonly infested tree genus in the United States, followed by ''Ulmus'' and ''Salix''. In Canada, complete development has been confirmed only on ''Acer'', ''Betula'', ''Populus'', and ''Salix'', although oviposition has occurred on other tree genera. ''Acer'' is the most commonly infested tree genus in Canada. In Europe, complete development has been recorded on ''Acer'', ''Aesculus'', ''Alnus'' , ''Betula'', ''Carpinus'' , ''Fagus'' , ''Fraxinus'', ''Platanus'', ''Populus'', ''Prunus'', ''Salix'', and ''Sorbus''. The top five host genera infested in Europe, in decreasing order, are ''Acer'', ''Betula'', ''Salix'', ''Aesculus'', and ''Populus''. Not all ''Populus'' species are equally susceptible to ALB attack. For example, in China, ''Populus'' species in sections ''Aigeiros'' and ''Tacamahaca'' are generally more susceptible to ALB than species in section ''Populus'' .

Reproduction

Although the Asian long-horned beetle can fly for unbroken distances of 400 yards or more in search of a host tree, they tend to lay eggs in the same tree from which they emerged as adults, migrating only when population density becomes too high. During the summer months, a mated adult ALB female chews some 35 to 90 individual depressions into the host tree's bark and lays an egg in each of the pits. The white, apodous eruciform larvae hatch out in 10–15 days.

The larvae are straight, with their front ends somewhat broader than the rest of the body. This is characteristic of many Cerambycid larvae, and so is the fact that instead of using legs to navigate their tunnels, they have fleshy pads on their segments. They press the pads against the tunnels walls for grip as they stretch or contract their bodies.

As they eat, they tunnel into the tree's phloem and cambium layers beneath the tree bark. After several months, they tunnel deeper into the tree's heartwood where they mature into pupae. The total process from egg to pupation takes some 10–22 months, depending on the season, the weather, and the quality of the food supplied by the tree. Generally speaking, the phloem and cambium are the best food sources, but more exposed to predators such as woodpeckers, and a lot wetter. Heartwood and even sapwood are less nutritious, but more secure, so that is where the mature larva digs its pupation chamber. They do not pupate before they have gained the necessary mass to support their adult activities and functions.

The pupal stage may last several months if pupation occurred at the start of the cold season, causing the pupa to go into diapause. The adults emerge from the pupae near the surface of the tree when the climate outside causes them to break diapause. They emerge as early as May and as late as October or November, depending on climate. The full-grown adult ALBs emerge through circular exit holes that typically measure 10–15 mm in diameter but can range from 6 to 20 mm.

Food

Adult ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' feed on leaves, twigs, and other plant matter. In their native habitat larvae of ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' feed on the healthy bark, phloem, and xylem of more than 24 species of hardwood trees. This causes the death of many trees. Also, it is extremely hard to kill off ALB larvae, another reason for this beetle's success.

Predators

Adult ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' feed on leaves, twigs, and other plant matter. In their native habitat larvae of ''Anoplophora glabripennis'' feed on the healthy bark, phloem, and xylem of more than 24 species of hardwood trees. This causes the death of many trees. Also, it is extremely hard to kill off ALB larvae, another reason for this beetle's success.

History and timeline

*August 19, 1996: identified in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NYC
⤷ *Feb 1999: Bayside, Queens
⤷ *July 1999: Flushing, Queens
⤷ *August 1999: Upper East Side, Manhattan
⤷ *June 2000: Lower East Side, Manhattan
⤷ *July 2000: Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens
⤷ *October 2001: FDR Drive & 34th St, Manhattan
⤷ *January 2002: Central Park, Manhattan
⤷ *March 2003: Forest Park, Queens
⤷ *April 2003: Kew Gardens Hills, Queens
⤷ *September 2003: Mount Olivet Cemetery, Queens
⤷ *More sites have been found in 2004 onward
⤷  September 23, 1996: discovered in Amityville, NY
⤷  October 17, 1997: discovered in Lindenhurst, NY
⤷  July 10, 1998: discovered in Ravenswood neighborhood, Chicago, IL
⤷ * July 31, 1998: Addison, IL
⤷ * August 3, 1998: Summit, IL
⤷ * September 2, 1999: Park Ridge, IL
⤷ * November 28, 2000: O'Hare International Airport, Chicago, IL
⤷  September 8, 1999: discovered in Islip, NY
⤷  October 11, 2002: discovered in Jersey City, NJ...hieroglyph snipped...
⤷  September 18, 2003: discovered in Toronto, ON and Vaughan, ON...hieroglyph snipped...
⤷  August 17, 2004: discovered in Carteret, Rahway, and Linden, NJ
⤷  June 16, 2005: 2 live adult ALBs found outside of a warehouse in Sacramento, CA
⤷  April 25, 2006: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service , Plant Protection and Quarantine, Asian Longhorned Beetle Cooperative Eradication Program launched an ALB curriculum program as a pilot program geared towards Chicago middle and high school students. "Beetlebusters" still teaches students about the biology of the ALB and promotes students, teachers and families to search ALB host trees in backyards, schoolyards and the community for signs of infestation and to report the results of the search to a special Beetlebusters website. The Beetlebusters program expanded a summer 2005 camp project into schools.
⤷  March 1, 2007: ALB Cooperative Eradication Program inspectors discovered a new Asian long-horned beetle infestation on Prall's Island in Richmond County, New York.
⤷  March 22, 2007: An ALB-infested tree was found on Staten Island, New York, within ¼ mile of the infestation found on Prall's Island on March 1, 2007. This was the first infested tree found in Staten Island.
⤷  May 2007: USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service launched extensive outreach and public education project that urged residents of Chicago to look for signs of the Asian long-horned beetle. The "Countdown to Eradication" had begun. No ALBs were discovered during the summer and fall months in Chicago.
⤷  April 7, 2008: New Jersey Secretary of Agriculture Charles M. Kuperus joined with United States Department of Agriculture representatives to declare Jersey City and Hoboken free of the tree-killing Asian long-horned beetle. ALB was declared officially eradicated from Hudson County, New Jersey.
⤷  April 17, 2008: The Asian long-horned beetle was declared eradicated from Illinois at an event held in the Ravenswood neighborhood of Chicago, the same neighborhood where beetles were found infesting trees in 1998.
⤷  August 7, 2008: discovery reported in Worcester, MA....hieroglyph snipped...
⤷  September 28, 2008: regulated area includes the entire city of Worcester, MA, the town of West Boylston, MA, Boylston, MA, Shrewsbury, MA, as well as parts of Holden, MA and Auburn, MA....hieroglyph snipped...
⤷  July 6, 2010: Discovery reported in Jamaica Plain, MA.
⤷  May 9, 2011: Regulated area in central Massachusetts expanded to include a section of northeastern Auburn, MA
⤷  June 17, 2011: Discovery reported in Bethel, OH
⤷  March 28, 2012: Larvae discovered by the UK's Forestry Commission in Paddock Wood, Kent, United Kingdom.
⤷  July 13, 2012: Found in the city of Winterswijk, the [Netherlands]

References:

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Status: Least concern
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionArthropoda
ClassInsecta
OrderColeoptera
FamilyCerambycidae
GenusAnoplophora
SpeciesA. glabripennis
Photographed in
China
Netherlands