Alfalfa Plant Bug

Adelphocoris lineolatus

''Adelphocoris lineolatus'', or the alfalfa plant bug, is about 7–9 millimetres long and 3 mm wide. These plant bugs are found in fields and other grassy areas, and tend to be attracted to lights such as porch and street lights. The adults can be seen between May and late October. In North America ''Adelphocoris lineolatus'' is an introduced species from Eurasia. The date of introduction is currently unknown but believed to have been in 1917.
Adelphocoris lineolatus Attracted to porch light. Adelphocoris lineolatus,Alfalfa Plant Bug,Geotagged,Hemiptera,Heteroptera,Miridae,Summer,United States,insect,plant bugs

Appearance

Adelphocoris lineolatus have an elongated body shape and are large in body size. Alfalfa plant bug males body size ranges from, 8.3-9.5 millimetres. Whereas, the females are a little bit smaller than the males having a body size between, 7.6 and 8.3 millimetres.

Their antennae are usually the same length as their body size, sometimes a bit shorter. A longitudinal brown triangle is located on the middle of their corium.

The scutellum of A. lineolatus have two longitudinal brown lines on the surface. The pronotum of the alfalfa plant bug will have two black spots on it. It commonly observed that their femora are spotted with brown specks. Also, the ocular index between male and female Adelphocoris lineolatus differs. Males have an ocular index of 0.83 millimetres. Whereas, females have an ocular index of 1.5 millimetres.

Certain regions of their bodies are covered with black hairs, and others with pale coloured hairs. The body colour can range from a light green to a pale brown.

Nymphs are green and have red eyes. In A. lineolatus nymphs there is an absence of wings, but in adult species wings are seen.
Alfalfa Plant Bug - Adelphocoris lineolatus Habitat: Garden Adelphocoris,Adelphocoris lineolatus,Alfalfa Plant Bug,Geotagged,Summer,United States,bug,miridae,plant bug

Naming

Adelphocoris binotata Goeze
Adelphocoris chenopodii Fallen, 1807
Adelphocoris italica Tamanini, 1961
Adelphocoris lineolatus baltrumensis Schumacher, 1911
Adelphocoris lineolatus binotatus Wagner, 1960
Adelphocoris lineolatus bisbipunctata Tamanini, 1982
Calocoris chenopodii
Calocoris chenopodii implagiata
Calocoris chenopodii lineolatus
Calocoris lineolatus bisbipunctatus Reuter, 1891
Closterotomus norwegicus? Miridae
Closterotomus norwegicus?
Lateral view, here:
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/62527/closterotomus_norwegicus.html Adelphocoris lineolatus,Insecta,Miridae,biodiversity,bugs,hemiptera,heteroptera,insects,summer

Distribution

Native to the Palaearctic. Adventive and widespread in North America.

Adelphocoris lineolatus are an Old World Species native to Western Europe, Northern Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. In 1917, this species had been introduced into Canada and the United States. In the Nearctic ecozone, these insects range from Southern Ontario and Northeastern United States, to the south of North Carolina, and west of Colorado.
Adelphocoris lineolatus The principal food plant of this species is alfalfa which is a common component of many of the hayfields in the area. Adelphocoris lineolatus,Alfalfa Plant Bug,Geotagged,Hemiptera,Summer,United States,bug,insect

Behavior

Adults are attracted to light.
Alfalfa plant bug   (Adelphocoris lineolatus) Its wings are still growing, this insect is far from being capable of flying, Adelphocoris lineolatus,Canada,Geotagged,Summer

Habitat

Alfalfa plant bugs require a certain set of optimal conditions in order to thrive and become a pest in any country. A. lineolatus are primarily located in humid environments with cold temperatures.

Commonly one can find these plant bugs in either fields or grasslands, in both dry and damp areas. However, alfalfa plant bugs are not successful in salty lakes, deserts, sand dunes, windy weather, or very warm climates.

Adelphocoris lineolatus will easily adapt to cooler environmental conditions, which has allowed them to invade a large amount of territory in Canada.

Reproduction

Alfalfa plant bugs exhibit migratory behaviour, which allows Adelphocoris lineolatus to rapidly increase their population sizes.

Adult females can lay 80 to 300 eggs, into branches and young stems of host plants, females will begin to lay eggs in the end of July. The eggs will develop in 8–12 days, but some of the eggs will overwinter. Eggs that have overwintered in stems, hatch in late May or early June.

Less than five percent of alfalfa plant bug eggs will hatch in the same year they are laid. A majority of the eggs will enter a period of diapause. This causes a decline in the reproductive activity of second-generation adults. The developmental process of A. lineolatus involves five nymphal instars, and between late June and October adults are seen.

Food

Nymphs and adults feed on legumes including alfalfa (Medicago sativa), crownvetch (Securigera varia) and grasses. It is an agricultural pest causing vast amounts of damage to numerous crops, but primarily to alfalfa crops around the globe.

Predators

Nymphs are parasitized by the braconid wasps Peristenus conradi and P. pallipes, which have been used to control of A. lineolatus in the northeastern US.

References:

Some text fragments are auto parsed from Wikipedia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelphocoris_lineolatus
https://bugguide.net/node/view/63535
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionArthropoda
ClassInsecta
OrderHemiptera
FamilyMiridae
GenusAdelphocoris
SpeciesA. lineolatus