Indian wolf

Canis lupus pallipes

The Indian wolf is a subspecies of grey wolf which ranges from Israel to the Indian Subcontinent. It is intermediate in size between the Tibetan and Arabian wolf, and lacks the former's luxuriant winter coat. Along with the extant Himalayan and African wolves, as well as the now extinct Beringian wolf, the Indian wolf represents one of the more basal subspecies of grey wolf, with one genetic study indicating that the Indian wolf has been reproductively isolated from other populations for over 400,000 years.
An elusive look This was one of the most rarest encounters I had in the wild ! I was driving through the forests of Kuldiha WIldlife Sanctuary when suddenly I saw a creature standing right in the middle of the forest road. On going closer it quickly vanished inside the bushes on the side of the road. But, just as I went near the spot where it was standing, I saw it again, staring curiously from the woods...It was an Indian Wolf ! 

Shot at Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary, Odisha (India)  Canis lupus pallipes,Contest,Fall,Geotagged,India,Indian Wolf,Indian wolf,JungleDragon January 2015 photo contest,Mammals,Wildlife

Appearance

The Indian wolf is similar in structure to the European wolf, but is smaller, more slightly built, and has shorter fur with little to no underfur. Like the Arabian wolf, it has short, thin fur in summer, though the hair on the back remains long even in summer, an adaptation thought to be against solar radiation. The fur is generally greyish-red to reddish-white with grey tones. The hairs are grizzled with black, particularly on the back, which sports a dark V-shaped patch around the shoulders. The limbs are paler than the body, and the underparts are almost completely white. Pups are born sooty-brown, with a milk-white patch on the chest which fades with age. Black specimens are rare, but have been recorded in India's Solapur district and two regions of Iran. In the latter country, the mutation was found to be naturally ocurring, unlike in North American grey wolves, which have inherited the Kb allele responsible for melanism from past interbreeding with dogs.

Its habits are similar to those of other grey wolf subspecies, though the Indian wolf generally lives in smaller packs rarely exceeding 6-8 individuals, and is relatively less vocal, having rarely been known to howl. There is at least one record of a lone wolf associating with a pair of dholes in Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary. It tends to breed from mid-October to late December, and whelp in holes or ravines. It typically preys on antelopes, rodents, and hares. It usually hunts in pairs when targeting antelopes, with one wolf acting as a decoy while the other attacks from behind.

Status

During the 19th century, wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River. However, they decreased considerably in number between 1964 and 1980, largely due to persecution by farmers. Currently, Israel's conservation policies and effective law enforcement maintain a moderately sized wolf population, which radiates into neighbouring countries. Turkey may play an important role in maintaining wolves in the region, due to its contiguity with Central Asia. The mountains of Turkey have served as a refuge for the few wolves remaining in Syria. A small wolf population occurs in the Golan Heights, and is well protected by the military activities there. Although Turkish wolves have no legal protection, they may number about 7,000 individuals.

Little is known of current wolf populations in Iran, which once occurred throughout the country in low densities during the mid-1970s. Although widespread throughout the country, being absent only in the central desert and Dasht-e Lut, there is no reliable estimation on the wolf's population size there. Wolves in Iran continue to suffer from habitat loss, unregulated hunting and loss of prey.

The northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for the wolf. It has been estimated that there are about 300 wolves in approximately 60,000 km2 of Jammu and Kashmir in northern India, and 50 more in Himachal Pradesh. Hindus traditionally considered the hunting of wolves, even dangerous ones, as taboo, for fear of causing a bad harvest. The Santals, however, considered them fair game, as with every other forest-dwelling animal. During British rule in India, wolves were not considered game species, and were killed primarily in response to them attacking game herds, livestock, and people. In 1876, in the North-West Provinces and Bihar State, 2,825 wolves were killed in response to 721 fatal attacks on humans. Two years later, 2,600 wolves were killed in response to attacks leaving 624 humans dead. By the 1920s, wolf extermination remained a priority in the NWP and Awadh. Overall, over 100,000 wolves were killed for bounties in British India between 1871 and 1916. In modern India, the Indian wolf is distributed across the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. As of 2004, it is estimated that there are around 2000–3000 Indian wolves in the country. They are mainly found outside of protected reserves and feed mainly on domestic animals, such as goats or sheep. However, in areas where natural prey is still abundant, for example in Velavadar National Park or Panna Tiger Reserve, natural prey species are still preferred. Although protected since 1972, Indian wolves are classed as Endangered, with many populations lingering in low numbers or living in areas increasingly used by humans. Although present in Nepal and Bhutan, there is no information of wolves occurring there.

Evolution

The Indian wolf was first described in 1831 by the British ornithologist William Henry Sykes under the binomial ''Canis pallipes''. In 1941, Reginald Pocock subordinated it to ''Canis lupus'' under the trinomial ''Canis lupus pallipes''. Based on assumptions made, MtDNA studies on various wolf subspecies inhabiting the Indian Subcontinent indicated that ''C. l. pallipes'' represents an older lineage of wolves than those present in Europe and North America, having likely diverged from the older Himalayan wolf 400,000 years ago. The authors of two studies proposed that ''C. l. pallipes'' populations in peninsular India are genetically distinct enough to be considered separate species, further proposing that the animal should be given the binomial name ''Canis indica''.

Cultural

Wolves are occasionally mentioned in Hindu mythology. In the ''Harivamsa'', Krishna, to convince the people of Vraja to migrate to Vrindavan, creates hundreds of wolves from his hairs, which frighten the inhabitants of Vraja into making the journey. In the ''Rig Veda'', Rijrsava is blinded by his father as punishment for having given 101 of his family's sheep to a she-wolf, who in turn prays to the Ashvins to restore his sight. Bhima, the voracious son of the god Vayu, is described as ''Vrikodara'', meaning "wolf-stomached".

The wolf has an ambivalent reputation in Iranian culture, being demonised in the Avestas as a creation of Ahriman, and still features in contemporary cautionary tales told to misbehaving children.

Indian wolves take a central role in Rudyard Kipling's ''The Jungle Book'' series, in which a pack in the Sioni area of Madhya Pradesh adopts the feral child Mowgli, and teaches him how to survive in the jungle whilst protecting him from the tiger Shere Khan and the marauding dhole.

References:

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Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderCarnivora
FamilyCanidae
GenusCanis
SpeciesCanis lupus
Photographed in
India