Southern maidenhair fern

Adiantum capillus-veneris

''Adiantum capillus-veneris'', the Southern maidenhair fern, black maidenhair fern, and venus hair fern, is a species of ferns in the genus ''Adiantum'' with a subcosmopolitan worldwide distribution. It is cultivated as a popular garden fern and houseplant.
Maiden Hair Fern in the Virgin River Narrows On the lower walls of the Virgin river narrows. Adiantum capillus-veneris,Southern maidenhair fern,Utah,Zion National Park

Appearance

''Adiantum capillus-veneris'' grows from 6 to 12 in in height; its fronds arising in clusters from creeping rhizomes 8 to 27.5 in tall, with very delicate, light green fronds much subdivided into pinnae 0.2 to 0.4 in long and broad; the frond rachis is black and wiry.
Adiantum capillus-veneris  Adiantum capillus-veneris,Geotagged,Israel,Southern maidenhair fern,Summer

Distribution

''Adiantum capillus-veneris'' is native to the southern half of the United States from California to the Atlantic coast, through Mexico and Central America, to South America. It is also native to Eurasia, the Levant in Western Asia, and Australasia. There are two disjunct occurrences in the northern part of North America: at Cascade Springs in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia. In both instances, the warm microclimate created by hot mineral springs permits the growth of the plant far north of its normal range.

It is found in temperate climates from warm-temperate to tropical, where the moisture content is high but not saturating, in the moist, well-drained sand, loam or limestone many habitats, including rainforests, shrub and woodlands, broadleaf and coniferous forests, and desert cliff seeps, and springs. It often may be seen growing on moist, sheltered and shaded sandstone or limestone formations, generally south-facing in the southern hemisphere, north-facing in the north, or in gorges. It occurs throughout Africa in moist places by streams. On moist sandstone cliffs it grows in full or partial shade, even when unprotected.
Southern maidenhair fern  Adiantum capillus-veneris,Geotagged,Italy,Palatine Hill

Status

The fern is listed as an endangered species in North Carolina and threatened species in Kentucky , due to loss of Appalachian habitat.
Adiantum capillus-veneris young leaves Adiantum capillus-veneris,Geotagged,Israel,Southern maidenhair fern,Summer

Uses

This plant is used medicinally by Native Americans. The Mahuna people use the plant internally for rheumatism, and the Kayenta Navajo use an infusion of the plant as a lotion for bumblebee and centipede stings. The Kayenta also smoke it or take it internally for insanity.

References:

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Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionPolypodiophyta
ClassPolypodiopsida
OrderPolypodiales
FamilyPteridaceae
GenusAdiantum
SpeciesA. capillus-veneris