Frosty bonnet

Mycena adscendens

''Mycena adscendens'', commonly known as the frosty bonnet, is a species of fungus in the family Mycenaceae. The fungus produces small white fruit bodies with caps up to 7.5 mm in diameter that appear to be dusted with sugar-like granules. Caps are supported by thin, hollow stems up to 20 mm long, which are set on a disc-like base. It is distributed in the United States, where it has been found from Washington to California, Europe, and Turkey. The fruit bodies grow on fallen twigs and other woody debris on the forest floor, including fallen hazel nuts. The variety ''carpophila'' is known from Japan. There are several small white ''Mycena'' species that are similar in appearance to ''M. adscendens'', some of which can be reliably distinguished only by examining microscopic characteristics.
Frosty bonnet  Fall,Frosty bonnet,Geotagged,Mycena adscendens,United States

Appearance

The cap is white and small, with a diameter typically ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 mm . Initially convex to cucullate , it flattens during maturity, developing visible surface grooves that correspond to the gills underneath the cap; the surface may also be covered with glistening particles, remnants of the partial veil. The cap is pallid gray with a whitish margin when young, but soon becomes white overall. The flesh is membranous, fragile, and thin . The gills are free from attachment or narrowly attached to the stem. They are up to 0.5 mm broad, distantly-spaced , and sometimes adhering to each other to form a slight collar around the stem. They are translucent-white throughout their development, with a fringed, white edge. The hollow stem is 0.5 to 2 cm long, and usually curved and threadlike. The bottom of the stem is enlarged into a slight bulb, which is initially nearly spherical. At the very base of the stem is a small, white, and hairy disk-like base that attaches to the substrate. The edibility of the mushroom is unknown, but like many small Mycenas, they are insubstantial and not likely to be considered for the table.

The variety ''carpophila'' is characterized by its tiny white cap up to 1 mm in diameter, and narrowly conical caulocystidia .''Mycena adscendens'' produces a white spore print. The spores are broadly ellipsoid, amyloid, and have dimensions of 8–10 by 5–6.5 µm. Basidia are two-spored, club-shaped, and measure 14–17 by 7–9 µm. Pleurocystidia may be present or absent. If present, they are similar to the cheilocystidia . The cheilocystidia are abundant, measuring 28–44 by 8–12 µm. They are variable in shape, often fusoid-ventricose or with 2–3 needle-like projections arising from the apex; the projections are sometimes forked. The swollen parts of the cheilocystidia are covered with short rodlike protuberances or warts. The flesh of the gills is vinaceous-brown when stained in iodine. The flesh of the cap is made up of greatly enlarged cells, with the surface covered with club-shaped to almost globular cells measuring 25–40 by about 20 µm. Their walls are finely verrucose , and all but the verrucose cells are vinaceous-brown in iodine. Clamp connections are abundant in the hyphae.
Frosty Bonnet  Geotagged,Mycena adscendens,United States

Naming

Other Mycenas that resemble ''M. adscendens'' include ''M. alphitophora'' and ''M. stylobates''. The former is distinguished from ''M. adscendens'' by a stem base that is not swollen or disc-like, the latter by its larger and sturdier fruit body and lack of granules on the cap. A poorly known Japanese species, ''M. cryptomeriicola'', is similar to ''M. adscendens'', but has non-amyloid spores and lacks clamps. ''M. nucicola'' is most reliably distinguished from ''M. adscendens'' by microscopic characteristics: ''M. nucicola'' has four-spored basidia, clamp connections are rare in the hyphae of the gill tissue, and the spores are less broad . The Finnish species ''M. occulta'' grows on the decaying needles of Norway spruce and Scots pine. It differs from ''M. adscendens'' in that its gills do not form a pseudocollarium, it lacks clamps in the hyphae and cells of the hymenium, and the terminal cells in its cap cuticle are densely covered with protuberances.
Frosty Bonnet  Fall,Frosty bonnet,Geotagged,Mycena adscendens,United States

Distribution

Fruit bodies of ''Mycena adscendens'' are found scattered to grouped together in twos or threes on fallen twigs, bark, and woody debris of hardwoods during the spring and autumn; it fruits less frequently on the wood of conifers. Fruitings are most common after periods of wet weather. They are also found growing on hazel nuts that have fallen to the ground; two other Mycenas known to grow on this substrate include ''M. discopus'' and ''M. nucicola''. In the United States, it is known from Washington to California. It is also found in Europe, and has been collected in Amasya Province, Turkey. The variety ''carpophila'', originally described from Denmark, was reported from Japan in 2003.
Very tiny white mycenoid mushrooms could be the variety carpophila - which has tiny caps on the mature mushrooms Fall,Frosty bonnet,Geotagged,Mycena adscendens,United States

Habitat

Fruit bodies of ''Mycena adscendens'' are found scattered to grouped together in twos or threes on fallen twigs, bark, and woody debris of hardwoods during the spring and autumn; it fruits less frequently on the wood of conifers. Fruitings are most common after periods of wet weather. They are also found growing on hazel nuts that have fallen to the ground; two other Mycenas known to grow on this substrate include ''M. discopus'' and ''M. nucicola''. In the United States, it is known from Washington to California. It is also found in Europe, and has been collected in Amasya Province, Turkey. The variety ''carpophila'', originally described from Denmark, was reported from Japan in 2003.

References:

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Taxonomy
KingdomFungi
DivisionBasidiomycota
ClassAgaricomycetes
OrderAgaricales
FamilyMycenaceae
GenusMycena
SpeciesM. adscendens