Asian Common Toad

Duttaphrynus melanostictus

"Duttaphrynus melanostictus" is commonly called Asian common toad, Asian black-spined toad, Asian toad, black-spectacled toad, common Sunda toad, and Javanese toad. It is probably a complex of more than one true toad species that is widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia.
Asian Common Toad, ''Duttaphrynus melanostictus''  Asian common toad,Duttaphrynus melanostictus,Geotagged,Indonesia,Spring


The species grows to about 20 cm long. Asian common toads breed during the monsoon, and their tadpoles are black. Young toads may be seen in large numbers after monsoon rains finish.

The top of the head has several bony ridges, along the edge of the snout, in front of the eye, above the eye, behind the eye, and a short one between the eye and ear.

The snout is short and blunt, and the space between the eyes is broader than the upper eyelid width. The ear drum or tympanum is very distinct and is at least as wide as two-thirds the diameter of the eye.

The first finger is often longer than the second and the toes are at least half webbed. A warty tubercle is found just before the junction of the thigh and shank and two moderate ones are on the shank. No skin fold occurs along the tarsus.

The “knee” reaches the tympanum or the eye when the hind leg is held parallel along the side of the body. The dorsal side is covered with spiny warts. The parotoids are prominent, kidney-shaped, or elliptical and elongated. The dorsal side is yellowish or brownish and the spines and ridges are black. The underside is unmarked or spotted.

Males have a subgular vocal sac and black pads on the inner fingers that help in holding the female during copulation.
Asian common toad  Asian Common Toad,Asian common toad,Duttaphrynus melanostictus,Geotagged,India,Spring,toad


Asian common toads occur widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau to Malaysia, Singapore, and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas and Natuna Islands. They have been recorded from sea level up to 1,800 m altitude, and live mostly in disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. They are uncommon in closed forests.
Asian Common Toad - Duttaphrynus melanostictus                                 Asian Common Toad,Duttaphrynus melanostictus,Maldives,Toad


Asian common toads breed in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools.

Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover such as rocks, leaf litter, and logs, and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.

They are often seen at night under street lamps, especially when winged termites swarm. They have been noted to feed on a wide range of invertebrates, including scorpions. Tadpoles grown in sibling groups metamorphosed faster than those that were kept in mixed groups. Tadpoles have been shown to be able to recognize kin.


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SpeciesD. melanostictus