Maidenhair spleenwort

Asplenium trichomanes

''Asplenium trichomanes'' is a small fern in the spleenwort genus ''Asplenium''. It is a widespread and common species, occurring almost worldwide in a variety of rocky habitats. It is a variable fern with several subspecies.
Ferns on a wall Small ferns(?) growing on a wall near the sea.  Asplenium trichomanes,Geotagged,Maidenhair spleenwort,Summer,United Kingdom,coast

Appearance

It grows in tufts from a short rhizome. The fronds are long and narrow, gradually tapering towards the tip. They are simply divided into small, yellow-green to dark-green pinnae. The stipe and rachis of the frond are dark all along their length. The fronds can reach 40 cm in length but are more commonly 8-20 cm. They bear long, narrow sori which contain the spores.
Maidenhair spleenwort  Asplenium trichomanes,Bulgaria

Naming

''Asplenium trichomanes'' has diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes, which it has been argued should be recognised as distinct species. A triploid cytotype is also known. Within these cytotypes several subspecies are recognised, including

⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' subsp. ''trichomanes'' prefers acidic rocks such as sandstone, basalt and granite. In Europe and North America it is most often found in mountainous areas and is commonest in the north. It is a delicate plant with a slender stipe and rachis and relatively few pinnae. Diploid.
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' subsp. ''quadrivalens'' prefers calcareous rocks such as limestone and dolerite and often grows on the mortar in walls. It is commoner than ''A. t.'' subsp. ''trichomanes'' in much of Europe but is less widespread in North America, although it is present in southern North America where ssp. ''trichomanes'' is absent. Compared to the nominate subspecies it is stouter and has more pinnae which are more square in shape and have less of a stalk. The fronds tend to grow close to the rock while those of ''A. t.'' subsp. ''trichomanes'' tend to arch away. Tetraploid.
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' subsp. ''pachyrachis'' is mainly found on limestone rocks and walls. It is small and delicate, grows close to the rock and has a rigid, fragile stipe and rachis. Tetraploid.
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' subsp. ''coriaceifolium'' : Majorca, Spain, Morocco. Tetraploid.
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' subsp. ''hastatum''. Tetraploid.
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' subsp. ''inexpectans''. Diploid.
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' subsp. ''maderense''. Madeira, Azores. Hexaploid. Hexaploids also occur in Australia and New Zealand.
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''staufferi''. Tetraploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''barraraense''. Tetraploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''lovisianum''. Tetraploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''moravicum''. Tetraploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''melzeranum''. Triploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''melzeri''. Triploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''tadei-reichsteinii''. Triploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''lusaticum''. Triploid .
⤷ ''Asplenium trichomanes'' nothosubsp. ''malacitense''. Triploid .

Distribution

It is widespread in temperate and subarctic areas and also occurs in mountainous regions in the tropics. Its range includes most of Europe and much of Asia south to Turkey, Iran and the Himalayas with a population in Yemen. It occurs in northern, southern and parts of eastern Africa and also in eastern Indonesia, south-east Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and Hawaii. It is found in North America and Central America and Cuba, and the northern and western regions of South America such as Chile.

It grows in rocky habitats such as cliffs, scree slopes, walls and mine waste, the type of rock used as a substrate depending on the subspecies. It grows from sea-level up to 3000 metres in North America while in the British Isles it reaches 870 metres.

Habitat

It is widespread in temperate and subarctic areas and also occurs in mountainous regions in the tropics. Its range includes most of Europe and much of Asia south to Turkey, Iran and the Himalayas with a population in Yemen. It occurs in northern, southern and parts of eastern Africa and also in eastern Indonesia, south-east Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and Hawaii. It is found in North America and Central America and Cuba, and the northern and western regions of South America such as Chile.

It grows in rocky habitats such as cliffs, scree slopes, walls and mine waste, the type of rock used as a substrate depending on the subspecies. It grows from sea-level up to 3000 metres in North America while in the British Isles it reaches 870 metres.

References:

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Status: Unknown
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionPolypodiophyta
ClassPolypodiopsida
OrderPolypodiales
FamilyAspleniaceae
GenusAsplenium
SpeciesA. trichomanes