Nepenthes edwardsiana

Nepenthes edwardsiana

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' /nɪˈpɛnθiːz ɛdˌwɔːrdziˈɑːnə/, or the splendid pitcher-plant, is a carnivorous tropical pitcher plant endemic to Mount Kinabalu and neighbouring Mount Tambuyukon in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is considered one of the most spectacular of all ''Nepenthes'', producing some of the largest pitchers and the most highly developed peristome ribs of any species in the genus.
Splendid Pitcher Plant -Nepenthes edwardsiana Still not fully developed.
And a more mature here:
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/96516/splendid_pitcher_plant_-nepenthes_edwardsiana.html Fall,Geotagged,Malaysia,Nepenthes edwardsiana

Appearance

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' is a climbing plant. The stem can attain a length of 15 m and is up to 10 mm in diameter. Internodes are up to 35 cm long and circular in cross section.

Leaves are coriaceous and petiolate. The lamina is truly lanceolate in shape and may be up to 30 cm long by 7 cm wide. It has an acute-obtuse apex that is occasionally acuminate. The base of the lamina is gradually or abruptly contracted at the petiole. The petiole is canaliculate and up to 15 cm long. It is generally winged and bears a partly amplexicaul sheath that clasps the stem for two-thirds to three-quarters of its circumference. One to three longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib. Pinnate veins are indistinct. Tendrils are generally between one and two times as long as the lamina and grow to 35 cm in length.



The pitcher base is bulbous to ovoid, with the pitcher cup becoming cylindrical in the upper two-thirds to three-quarters. The pitchers are some of the largest in the genus, sometimes exceeding 50 cm in height and 15 cm in width, although they are usually around 30 cm high. Wings at the front of the pitcher cup are either greatly reduced or absent altogether. On the inner surface of the pitcher, the glandular region is present in the bulbous portion. The mouth is elongated into a neck and has an oblique insertion. The peristome is cylindrical and up to 30 mm wide. It bears very highly developed teeth and ribs, the latter reaching 20 mm in diameter. The pitcher lid or operculum is cordate, up to 8 cm wide, and lacks appendages. An unbranched spur up to 20 mm long is inserted near the base of the lid. Pitchers range in colour from light yellow to dark red. The inner surface of the pitcher is usually white, contrasting sharply with the rich colouration of the outer surface. Most parts of the pitcher are very flexible, including the peristome ribs, with only the pitcher base, where the digestive zone is located, being rigid.

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' has a racemose inflorescence. The peduncle may be up to 30 cm long, whereas the attenuate rachis reaches 20 cm in length. Pedicels are one-flowered, up to 25 mm long, and do not possess a bract. Sepals are round to elliptic in shape and up to 5 mm long. A study of 100 pollen samples taken from a herbarium specimen found the mean pollen diameter to be 34.4 μm .

Most parts of the plant bear an indumentum of very short hairs, although it is not conspicuous.

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' varies relatively little across its range; consequently, no infraspecific taxa have been described.
Splendid Pitcher Plant -Nepenthes edwardsiana ..and a bit too mature version..Unfortunately I could not find one with the right color! Fall,Geotagged,Malaysia,Nepenthes edwardsiana

Naming

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' is most closely related to ''N. macrophylla'' and ''N. villosa''. There has been much taxonomic confusion surrounding the status of these three taxa.''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' and ''N. villosa'' differ in a number of morphological features. The peristome of ''N. villosa'' is more intricate and its pitchers are not elongated above the hip, unlike those of ''N. edwardsiana''. In ''N. edwardsiana'', the apex of the lamina is usually acute, compared to the typically emarginate apex found in ''N. villosa''. As noted by Danser, the indumentum of these species also differs, with ''N. villosa'' being densely hirsute throughout and ''N. edwardsiana'' having an inconspicuous covering of very short hairs. The two taxa can also be distinguished on the basis of their floral morphology; the pedicels of ''N. villosa'' have a filiform bract, while those of ''N. edwardsiana'' do not.

Additionally, ''N. edwardsiana'' and ''N. villosa'' differ considerably in their altitudinal distributions. The latter species generally occurs at ultrahighland elevations , whereas ''N. edwardsiana'' is found between 1500 and 2700 m. Where their altitudinal distributions overlap, they are still identifiable as distinct species.

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' differs from ''N. macrophylla'' in the structure of its peristome. Although highly developed, the peristome ribs and teeth of ''N. macrophylla'' are considerably shorter than those of either ''N. edwardsiana'' or ''N. villosa''. The pitcher mouth of ''N. macrophylla'' is distinctive in that it rises gradually towards the lid, while at the same time not forming a pronounced neck. In addition, the mouth of this species has a much more oblique insertion than its relatives. ''Nepenthes macrophylla'' is also distinguished by its broad, ovate lid. The lower pitchers of ''N. edwardsiana'' and ''N. macrophylla'' are quite similar in shape, although in the latter species the hip is always positioned in the upper portion of the pitcher cup. The upper pitchers of these species are more distinct, with those of ''N. macrophylla'' being more ovoid and less elongated. As its name suggests, ''N. macrophylla'' has very large leaves and these may be twice as long as those of ''N. edwardsiana'' or ''N. villosa''.

Whereas ''N. edwardsiana'' and ''N. villosa'' are restricted to the Kinabalu area, ''N. macrophylla'' is only found near the summit of Mount Trusmadi.

Botanists Matthew Jebb and Martin Cheek suggest that ''N. edwardsiana'' is related to ''N. mira'', a species endemic to Palawan in the Philippines.

Distribution

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' is endemic to the highland slopes of Mount Kinabalu and the eastern side of neighbouring Mount Tambuyukon in Sabah, Borneo. On Mount Kinabalu, this species has been recorded from the Marai Parai plateau, East Ridge, Upper Kolopis River, and an area below the Kambarangoh Telekom station . ''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' has an altitudinal distribution of 1500–2700 m above sea level.

Anthea Phillipps and Anthony Lamb note that plants growing in the ''Racemobambos'' bamboo forest on Mount Tambuyukon produce some of the longest and finest pitchers, having a pronounced waist and ranging in colour from pink to reddish-orange. On the Marai Parai plateau of Mount Kinabalu, ''N. edwardsiana'' grows amongst shrubs up to 5 m high. Pitchers on these plants rarely exceed 30 cm. The species does not grow along the Kinabalu summit trail and so very few visitors to the park manage to see it. A specimen is kept at the "Mountain Garden" near Kinabalu Park Headquarters.

Mount Kinabalu was only formed around 1 million years ago and during the last ice age, around 20,000 to 10,000 years ago, it had an ice cap on its summit. As such, it appears that ''N. edwardsiana'' is a relatively recent species in evolutionary terms.

Contrary to the observations of Frederick William Burbidge, ''N. edwardsiana'' grows not only as an epiphyte, but also occurs terrestrially on moss-covered rocks. It typically grows amongst ridge-top vegetation in dense mossy forest. The natural habitat of ''N. edwardsiana'' is constantly moist as the slopes are often enveloped in clouds. Despite generally occurring epiphytically, ''N. edwardsiana'' seems to grow mostly in areas with ultramafic soils, although it has also been recorded from sandstone substrates.

Status

The El Niño climatic phenomenon of 1997 to 1998 had a catastrophic effect on the ''Nepenthes'' species of Mount Kinabalu. The dry period that followed severely depleted some natural populations. Forest fires broke out in 9 locations in Kinabalu Park, covering a total area of 25 square kilometres and generating large amounts of smog. Hugo Steiner recalls being unable to find any pitchers of ''N. edwardsiana'' during a trip to Kinabalu in March 1999. During the El Niño period, many plants were temporarily transferred to the park nursery. These were later replanted in the "''Nepenthes'' Garden" in Mesilau. Since then, Ansow Gunsalam has established a nursery close to the Mesilau Lodge at the base of Kinabalu Park to protect the endangered species of that area, including ''N. edwardsiana''.

The conservation status of ''N. edwardsiana'' is listed as Vulnerable on the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The species has also been classified as Vulnerable by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. However, Charles Clarke notes that since all known populations of ''N. edwardsiana'' lie within the boundaries of Kinabalu National Park and are inaccessible to collectors, they "are unlikely to become threatened in the foreseeable future". Taking this into account, Clarke suggests a revised assessment of Conservation Dependent based on the IUCN criteria.
Joseph Dalton Hooker, who described both ''N. edwardsiana'' and ''N. villosa'', noted the similarity between the two species as follows:

This most remarkable plant [''N. villosa''] resembles that of ''edwardsiana'' in so many respects, especially in the size, form and disposition of the distant lamellae of the mouth, that I am inclined to suspect that it may be produced by young plants of that species, before it arrives at a stage when the pitchers have elongated necks.

Günther Beck von Mannagetta und Lerchenau was the first to treat ''N. edwardsiana'' in synonymy with ''N. villosa'' when he published his monograph on the genus in 1895.

In his 1908 monograph, John Muirhead Macfarlane treated the two taxa as distinct species, writing: "Examinatione microscopica probatur, illas species distinctas esse". This was probably based on the scientific view at the time, which held that plants differing anatomically cannot be forms of the same species.

B. H. Danser united the species "[w]ith some hesitation" under ''N. villosa'' in his 1928 monograph "The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies". He suggested that ''N. villosa'' is a stunted form of ''N. edwardsiana'' from higher altitudes, which flowers at a "juvenile stage of development". Danser acknowledged that the indumentum of ''N. villosa'' is more dense than that of ''N. edwardsiana'', but noted that it "is a difference only of degree".

In 1936, Hermann Harms once again split the two species. In ''Nepenthes of Mount Kinabalu'', published in 1976, Shigeo Kurata supported this interpretation based on field observations and reference to the type descriptions.

''Nepenthes macrophylla'' was originally described in 1987 as a subspecies of ''N. edwardsiana'' by Johannes Marabini. It was later elevated to species status by Matthew Jebb and Martin Cheek. This interpretation was supported by Charles Clarke, who noted that ''N. edwardsiana'' and ''N. villosa'' "have more in common" than ''N. edwardsiana'' and ''N. macrophylla''.

Habitat

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' is endemic to the highland slopes of Mount Kinabalu and the eastern side of neighbouring Mount Tambuyukon in Sabah, Borneo. On Mount Kinabalu, this species has been recorded from the Marai Parai plateau, East Ridge, Upper Kolopis River, and an area below the Kambarangoh Telekom station . ''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' has an altitudinal distribution of 1500–2700 m above sea level.

Anthea Phillipps and Anthony Lamb note that plants growing in the ''Racemobambos'' bamboo forest on Mount Tambuyukon produce some of the longest and finest pitchers, having a pronounced waist and ranging in colour from pink to reddish-orange. On the Marai Parai plateau of Mount Kinabalu, ''N. edwardsiana'' grows amongst shrubs up to 5 m high. Pitchers on these plants rarely exceed 30 cm. The species does not grow along the Kinabalu summit trail and so very few visitors to the park manage to see it. A specimen is kept at the "Mountain Garden" near Kinabalu Park Headquarters.

Mount Kinabalu was only formed around 1 million years ago and during the last ice age, around 20,000 to 10,000 years ago, it had an ice cap on its summit. As such, it appears that ''N. edwardsiana'' is a relatively recent species in evolutionary terms.

Contrary to the observations of Frederick William Burbidge, ''N. edwardsiana'' grows not only as an epiphyte, but also occurs terrestrially on moss-covered rocks. It typically grows amongst ridge-top vegetation in dense mossy forest. The natural habitat of ''N. edwardsiana'' is constantly moist as the slopes are often enveloped in clouds. Despite generally occurring epiphytically, ''N. edwardsiana'' seems to grow mostly in areas with ultramafic soils, although it has also been recorded from sandstone substrates.

Predators

The El Niño climatic phenomenon of 1997 to 1998 had a catastrophic effect on the ''Nepenthes'' species of Mount Kinabalu. The dry period that followed severely depleted some natural populations. Forest fires broke out in 9 locations in Kinabalu Park, covering a total area of 25 square kilometres and generating large amounts of smog. Hugo Steiner recalls being unable to find any pitchers of ''N. edwardsiana'' during a trip to Kinabalu in March 1999. During the El Niño period, many plants were temporarily transferred to the park nursery. These were later replanted in the "''Nepenthes'' Garden" in Mesilau. Since then, Ansow Gunsalam has established a nursery close to the Mesilau Lodge at the base of Kinabalu Park to protect the endangered species of that area, including ''N. edwardsiana''.

The conservation status of ''N. edwardsiana'' is listed as Vulnerable on the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The species has also been classified as Vulnerable by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. However, Charles Clarke notes that since all known populations of ''N. edwardsiana'' lie within the boundaries of Kinabalu National Park and are inaccessible to collectors, they "are unlikely to become threatened in the foreseeable future". Taking this into account, Clarke suggests a revised assessment of Conservation Dependent based on the IUCN criteria.

Evolution

The type specimen of ''N. edwardsiana'' was collected on Mount Kinabalu in 1858 by Hugh Low and Spenser St. John. Designated as ''Low s.n.'', the specimen is deposited at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' was formally described in 1859 by Joseph Dalton Hooker. Hooker named the species after George Edwardes, Governor of the Crown Colony of Labuan, at the request of his friend Hugh Low. Hooker's original description and illustration were reproduced in Spenser St. John's ''Life in the Forests of the Far East'', published in 1862. St. John wrote the following account of ''N. edwardsiana'' on Mount Kinabalu:

As we ascended, we left the brushwood and entered a tangled jungle, in which few of the trees were large. The spur of the mountain became very narrow, sometimes not much wider than the path, and was greatly encumbered at one part by the twining stems of the ''Nepenthes Edwardsiana''. This handsome plant was not, however, much diffused along the spur, but confined to a space about a quarter of a mile in length, and climbed upon the trees around, with its fine pitchers hanging from all the lower boughs. We measured one plant and it was twenty feet in length, quite smooth, and the leaves of a very acute shape at both ends. It is a long, cylindrical, finely-frilled pitcher, growing on every leaf; one we picked measured twenty-one inches and a half long, by two and a half in breadth. They swell out a little towards the base, which is bright pea green, the rest of the cylinder being of a brilliant brick-red colour. Its mouth is nearly circular, the border surrounding it being finely formed of thin plates about a sixth of an inch apart, and about the same in height, and both of a flesh colour; the handsome lid is of a circular shape. The dried specimen forwarded to Dr. Hooker only measured eighteen inches. The plant is epiphytal, growing on casuarinas . The pitchers of the young creepers precisely resemble those of the older ones, except in size.

Alfred Russel Wallace made brief mention of ''N. edwardsiana'' in his famous work ''The Malay Archipelago'', first published in 1869: "Another, ''Nepenthes Edwardsiania'', has a narrow pitcher twenty inches long; while the plant itself grows to a length of twenty feet".

In subsequent years, ''N. edwardsiana'' was featured in a number of publications by eminent botanists such as Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel , Joseph Dalton Hooker , Frederick William Burbidge , Odoardo Beccari , William E. Dixon , Ernst Wunschmann , Otto Stapf , Harry James Veitch , Jacob Gijsbert Boerlage , William Botting Hemsley , and Elmer Drew Merrill .

However, most of these publications made only passing mention of ''N. edwardsiana''. The first work to include significant taxonomic revisions was that of Günther Beck von Mannagetta und Lerchenau in 1895, "Die Gattung ''Nepenthes''". Beck was the first to unite ''N. edwardsiana'' and ''N. villosa'', considering the former a variety or form of the latter. He also published the name ''Nepenthes edgeworthii'' based on a specimen collected in Borneo by Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach. The specimen, ''Herb.Reichenbach s.n.'', is deposited at the University of Vienna herbarium . Beck, like all subsequent authors, considered ''N. edgeworthii'' to be conspecific with ''N. edwardsiana''.



''Nepenthes edwardsiana'' was formally reinstated as a valid species in John Muirhead Macfarlane's 1908 monograph, which included a revised description and illustration of the species. Macfarlane also wrote about ''N. edwardsiana'' in the ''Journal of the Linnean Society'' in 1914 and ''The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture'' in 1919.

B. H. Danser treated ''N. edwardsiana'' in synonymy with ''N. villosa'' in his seminal monograph, "The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies", published in 1928. The work included a revised Latin diagnosis and botanical description of ''N. villosa''. Eight years later, Hermann Harms once again elevated ''N. edwardsiana'' to species status. This treatment was supported by Shigeo Kurata in 1976 and has not been challenged since.

A similar taxon from Mount Trusmadi was long considered to be ''N. edwardsiana''. It was described in 1987 as ''N. edwardsiana'' subsp. ''macrophylla'' by Johannes Marabini. A decade later, Matthew Jebb and Martin Cheek recognised it as a separate species in their monograph on the genus. This interpretation has been followed by subsequent authors.

References:

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Status: Vulnerable
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionAngiosperms
ClassEudicots
OrderCaryophyllales
FamilyNepenthaceae
GenusNepenthes
SpeciesN. edwardsiana
Photographed in
Malaysia