Appearance*Pileus: 5 — 20+ cm, convex, becoming broadly convex to flat
⤷ Gills: Decurrent
⤷ Spore Print: White to yellowish
⤷ Stipe: Short and offset from the center of the cap
⤷ Microscopic features: Spores white to yellowish to lavender-gray when dense, more or less cylindrical, 7.5–11 × 3–4 μm.
Habitat''P. pulmonarius'' is widespread in temperate and subtropical forests throughout the world. In the eastern United States, this species is generally found on hardwoods while in the west it is commonly found on conifers.
UsesSeveral studies done on animals and ''in vitro'' suggest ''P. pulmonarius'' and its extracts may have possible medicinal applications for a wide range of conditions.
A polysaccharide called β-D-Glucan from ''P. pulmonarius'' reduces sensitivity to pain in mice, and could be an "attractive" basis for new analgesic medications....hieroglyph snipped... In a different study on mice, a glucan from ''P. pulmonarius'' showed potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. A methanol extract of ''P. pulmonarius'' displayed anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity comparable to the standard reference drugs diclofenac and cisplatin, respectively.
A 2010 study concluded that extracts of ''P. pulmonarius'' may slow the proliferation of cancer cells with high galectin-3 levels, while at the same time downregulate tumour cell adherence - which is directly related to the progression and spread of cancer. Extracts of ''P. pulmonarius'' added to the diet of mice delayed carcinogenesis, suggesting that these extracts may be useful as an adjuvant to cancer therapies.
An orally administered hot water extract of ''P. pulmonarius'' had a significant antihyperglycemic effect, halted the progression of diabetes, and reduced the mortality of alloxan induced diabetic mice by approximately 50%. It showed a synergistic effect with the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide, supporting the possibility of effective combination therapy of glibenclamide and ''P. pulmonarius'' for diabetes.
''P. pulmonarius'' may be effective in the treatment of hay fever by inhibiting the release of histamine. Powdered ''P. pulmonarius'' mushrooms caused a significant reduction in sneezing and nasal rubbing when fed in water to sensitized mice, although the effect gradually builds up over a matter of weeks. When they were given 500 mg/kg a day, a significant effect was observed after two weeks, and it was four weeks before a significant change was observed at 200 mg/kg.
Extracts of ''P. pulmonarius'' attenuated the development of acute colitis in a mouse model, suggesting a possible clinical use in the treatment of colitis. A further study by the same authors concluded that the extracts also inhibit colon cancer formation associated with colitis in mice.
Extracts of ''P. pulmonarius'' have antimicrobial properties and exhibit antioxidant activity ''in vitro''.
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