Licorice fern

Polypodium glycyrrhiza

''Polypodium glycyrrhiza'', commonly known as licorice fern, many-footed fern, and sweet root, is a summer deciduous fern native to western North America, primarily in a narrow strip in southern Alaska, southwestern Yukon Territory, western British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, though two highly disjunct populations are known from Idaho and Arizona. It thrives in a humid climate, prevailing in areas with cool and moist summers and warm and wet winters. ''P. glycyrrhiza'' can often be found growing on the trunks and branches of winter deciduous trees, particularly bigleaf maple, but is also often found on rocks, logs, and wet, mossy humus. It takes advantage of the mild, wet winters and the substrate of deciduous trees to photosynthesize and grow during the cold season when most other temperate plants are dormant. Habitat elevation is lowlands below 600 meters.

Licorice fern acquires its name from its licorice-flavored rhizome, which was chewed for flavor by numerous Native American groups, including the Squamish, Shishalh, Comox, Nuxalk, Haida, and Kwakwaka'wakw. The rhizomes were also usually used medicinally as a treatment for the cold and sore throats.

Spores are located in rounded sori on the undersides of the fronds, and are released in cool weather and high humidity.

This species is a diploid, and is one parent of several species of hybrid origin:
*''Polypodium vulgare''
*''Polypodium hesperium''
*''Polypodium calirhiza''
A Frond Of The Licorice Root Fern As a child I can remember a friend bringing the rhizome of this fern to school (I must of been 8 years old) for me to chew on. Yes, it does taste like licorice. The sori on the underside will release the spores later in fall when it is cool and humid.
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/83494/polypodium_glycyrrhiza_growing_out_of_a_moss_covered_rock_wall.html
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/83495/polypodium_glycyrrhiza_a_habitat_photo.html
 Canada,Geotagged,Licorice Fern,Polypodium  glycyrrhiza,Polypodium glycyrrhiza,Summer

Appearance

Licorice fern does not grow its fronds from a centralized location; this is contrast to other ferns that grow their fronds from the same spot. The name ''Polypodium'' refers to this characteristic—it means "many-footed." The fronds are once-divided and triangular in shape, with finely toothed margins and pointed leaflets. They are usually at least one foot in length, but may grow to be over two feet long. They also display parallel venation. The rhizome is creeping and the fronds appear to have random placement, originating at various points. The rhizome appears reddish-brown, and is a sweet licorice-flavored. The name ''glycyrrhiza'' refers to this flavor--''glykys'' in Greek means sweet, with ''rhiza'' meaning root. Since it is a fern, ''P. glycyrrhiza'' reproduces by spores; the spores grow in a pattern of spots on the undersides of the leaves. These sori may be oval in immaturity. Licorice fern may grow over the ground, rocks, or as an epiphyte. The plant prefers moist environments, so it is typically found on wet ground, rocks, and logs. Occasionally it can be seen on fallen trees. It is very often associated with Acer macrophyllum. The fern is mycorrhizal, meaning it can form root associations with the hyphae of fungi.

The sweet flavor of the rhizome was once attributed to the glycoside glycyrrhizin. However, a study has shown that the flavor may actually be due to polypodoside, which is 600 times sweeter than 6% sucrose solution.

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Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionPolypodiophyta
ClassPolypodiopsida
OrderPolypodiales
FamilyPolypodiaceae
GenusPolypodium
SpeciesP. glycyrrhiza
Photographed in
Canada