Naming* P. p. poliocephalus- Latham, 1801: The nominate subspecies. Found from India and Sri Lanka to southern China and northern Thailand.
⤷ P. p. seistanicus- Zarudny and Härms, 1911: Found from Iraq and southern Iran to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwestern India. There is also an introduced population in Florida.
⤷ P. p. caspius- Hartert, 1917 : Found near the Caspian Sea, northwestern Iran, and Turkey.
BehaviorThe male has an elaborate courtship display, holding water weeds in his bill and bowing to the female with loud chuckles.
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