Spiral wrack

Fucus spiralis

''Fucus spiralis'' is a species of seaweed, a brown alga , living on the littoral shore of the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. It has the common names of spiral wrack and flat wrack.
Spiral Wrack - Fucus spiralis This seaweed had bumpy air bladders in pairs.  The fronds grow to 30 cm long.

Habitat: Spotted in large quantities in the intertidal zone.

 Fucus spiralis,Geotagged,Spiral wrack,Summer,United States,fucus,seaweed

Appearance

''Fucus spiralis'' is olive brown in colour and similar to ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Fucus serratus''. It grows to about 30 cm long and branches somewhat irregularly dichotomous and is attached, generally to rock, by a discoid holdfast. The flattened blade has a distinct mid-rib and is usually spirally twisted without a serrated edge, as in ''Fucus serratus'', and it does not show air-vesicles, as ''Fucus vesiculosus''.
Spiral Wrack - Fucus spiralis This area of the intertidal zone was covered with knotted wrack. Walking through this area was like walking over wet, slippery, stinky noodles that were concealing countless sharp rocks  and crevices.

https://www.jungledragon.com/image/61979/knotted_wrack_-_ascophyllum_nodosum.html Fucus spiralis,Geotagged,Spiral wrack,Spring,United States,alga,algae,brown algae

Distribution

''F. spiralis'' is common on the coasts all around the British Isles, western coasts of Europe, Canary Islands and North-eastern America.
Spiral Wrack - Fucus spiralis This seaweed has bumpy air bladders in pairs. The fronds grow to 30 cm long.

Habitat: Intertidal zone and washed up on beach Fucus,Fucus spiralis,Geotagged,Spiral wrack,Summer,United States,algae,brown algae,flat wrack,seaweed

Habitat

The other common species of ''Fucus'' on the coasts of British Isles: ''Fucus spiralis'', ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Fucus serratus'' along with ''Ascophyllum nodosum'' form the main and dominant seaweeds on rocky shores. These three species, along with two others ''Pelvetia canaliculata'' and ''Ascophyllum nodosum'' form the zones along the shore.
Spiral Wrack - Fucus spiralis This area of the intertidal zone was covered with knotted wrack. Walking through this area was like walking over wet, slippery, stinky noodles that were concealing countless sharp rocks and crevices.

https://www.jungledragon.com/image/61976/knotted_wrack_-_ascophyllum_nodosum.html Fucus spiralis,Geotagged,Spiral wrack,Spring,United States,alga,algae,brown algae,seaweed

Evolution

The reproductive bodies form rounded swollen tips on the branches, usually in pairs.
In the conceptacles oögonia and antheridia are produced after meiosis and then released. Fertilisation follows and the zygote develops directly into the diploid sporophyte plant.

References:

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Taxonomy
KingdomChromista
DivisionOchrophyta
ClassPhaeophyceae
OrderFucales
FamilyFucaceae
GenusFucus
SpeciesF. spiralis