Amanita atkinsoniana

Amanita atkinsoniana

''Amanita atkinsoniana'' is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family. It is found in the northeastern, southeastern, and southern United States as well as southern Canada, where it grows solitarily or in small groups on the ground in mixed woods. The fruit body is white to brownish, with caps that measure up to 12.5 cm in diameter, and stems up to 20 cm long and 2.5 cm thick. The surface of the cap is covered with reddish-brown to grayish-brown conical warts. The stem has a bulbous base covered with grayish-brown scales. The fruit bodies smell faintly like bleaching powder. Although not known to be poisonous, the mushroom is not recommended for consumption.
Atkinson's Lepidella Large mushroom (13cm tall) with a white cap that was covered in reddish brown warts. The stem was whitish yellow and was covered with brown floccose material.  Amanita,Amanita atkinsoniana,Atkinson's Lepidella,Geotagged,Summer,United States,fungus,mushroom

Appearance

The cap of ''A. atkinsoniana'' is 6–12.5 cm wide, and depending on its age, ranges in shape from convex to flattened, sometimes with a shallow central depression. Its color can vary from whitish to yellowish-white, brownish-gray, brownish-orange to grayish-brown, and is lighter on the margin. The cap surface is covered with the remnants of the universal veil as small reddish-brown to grayish-brown, easily removable, conical warts. Approaching the edge of the cap, the warts gradually become small, woolly patches. The cap margin is smooth or has faint grooves mirroring the underlying gills, and has partial veil remnants hanging along the edge. The gills are free from attachment to the stem, close to crowded together, moderately broad, yellowish-white, and occasionally have a slight reddish stain. The lamellulae are truncate to attenuate. The stem is 8–20 cm long and 1–2.5 cm wide, equal or tapering slightly toward apex, whitish, and floccose to smooth. The basal bulb is club-shaped, ventricose-fusiform or turnip-shaped, rounded or pointed, usually covered with rings of reddish-brown scales or warts of universal veil remains, often extending up the stem for a short distance. The universal veil on the stem base is quite unusual in ''Amanita'', because it forms warts that extend nearly to the very bottom of the bulb. The stem often roots into the soil beneath the bulb with an elongated cord of mycelium known as a ''pseudorhiza''. The partial veil forms an ring that is somewhat membranous, fragile to moderately persistent, and yellowish-white to pale yellow. Eventually, as the mushroom matures, it collapses on the stem as a thin membrane. The flesh is white, with a weak odor of bleaching powder.The spore print is white. The spores are ellipsoid to elongated, hyaline , thin-walled, and have dimensions of 9–12.5 by 5.5–8 µm. They are amyloid, meaning they will absorb iodine when stained with Melzer's reagent. The basidia are 35–60 by 7–13.5 µm, club-shaped, four-spored, with clamps at their bases. The cheilocystidia are 15–45 by 10–30 µm, ellipsoid to club-shaped, and abundant. The cap cuticle is up to 165 µm thick, and is made of interwoven to radial hyphae, 2.5–8 µm diameter, which is slightly to strongly gelatinized. The universal veil on the cap consists of mainly roughly spherical to ellipsoid but also club-shaped and elongated cells, up to 75 by 40 µm, arranged in short, terminal chains and relatively sparse hyphae, measuring 3–7.5 µm in diameter. At the base of the stem the universal veil tissue is very similar to that on the cap. Clamp connections are present in the hyphae.

Naming

Because of the colored volva, ''A. atkinsoniana'' resembles ''A. onusta'', which differs from ''A. atkinsoniana'' by the small to medium-sized fruit bodies with a grayish veil as dark gray to brownish gray warts and a basal bulb which is usually somewhat rooting. Sometimes the fruit bodies of ''A. atkinsoniana'' are confused with ''A. microlepsis'' which can be distinguished by the presence of reddish-brown to grayish-brown volval remnants and the rooting bulb of ''A. atkinsoniana''.

Distribution

The fruit bodies of ''Amanita atkinsoniana'' grow on the ground in mixed coniferous and deciduous forests. They have been collected in Alabama, Georgia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, and West Virginia. One field guide notes a preference for association with oak where there is ground cover of blueberry bushes. The mushroom has also been collected in Quebec, Canada. The southern extent of its range extends to the Mexican state of Michoacán. The mushroom fruits most commonly during late summer and fall after heavy rains.

Habitat

The fruit bodies of ''Amanita atkinsoniana'' grow on the ground in mixed coniferous and deciduous forests. They have been collected in Alabama, Georgia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, and West Virginia. One field guide notes a preference for association with oak where there is ground cover of blueberry bushes. The mushroom has also been collected in Quebec, Canada. The southern extent of its range extends to the Mexican state of Michoacán. The mushroom fruits most commonly during late summer and fall after heavy rains.

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Taxonomy
KingdomFungi
DivisionBasidiomycota
ClassAgaricomycetes
OrderAgaricales
FamilyAmanitaceae
GenusAmanita
SpeciesA. atkinsoniana