Green-veined White

Pieris napi

The Green-veined White is a butterfly of the Pieridae family.
Green-veined White Butterflies (Pieris napi) Two stories here.

The photograph is of a female Green-veined White Butterfly, one of three which successfully pupated in my kitchen rubbish bin, and which clung to my finger for ages afterwards before I was able to coax her onto a plant,  She remained there motionless over night, monitored by me as her wings dried. 

I saw her fly off the following morning.

The video is of a pair I found mating in a church graveyard, as you do: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkCLDxLQ1so Geotagged,Green-veined White,Pieris napi,United Kingdom

Appearance

A circumboreal species widespread across Europe and Asia, including the Indian subcontinent, Japan and the Maghreb and North America . It is found in meadows, hedgerows and woodland glades but not as often in gardens and parks like its close relatives the Large and Small Whites, for which it is often mistaken. Like other "white" butterflies, the sexes differ. The female has two spots on each forewing, the male only one. The veins on wings of the female are usually more heavily marked. The underside hindwings are pale yellow with the veins highlighted by black scales giving a greenish tint, hence Green-veined White. Unlike these two butterflies it rarely chooses garden cabbages to lay its eggs on, preferring wild crucifers.
Pieris napi (Dutch name "klein geaderd witje")  Fall,Geotagged,Green-veined White,Netherlands,Pieris napi

Naming

*''Pieris bryoniae''
⤷ ''Pieris ergane''
⤷ ''Pieris krueperi'' – Krüpers White
⤷ ''Pieris rapae'' – Small White*''Pieris napi adalwinda'' Finland, Sweden
⤷ ''Pieris napi meridionalis'' Heyne & Rühl, 1895, Spain, Italy
⤷ ''Pieris napi segonzaci'' High Atlas
⤷ ''Pieris napi maura'' Glacières de Blida, Algeria
⤷ ''Pieris napi atlantis'' Azrou, Middle Atlas, Morocco
⤷ ''Pieris napi flavescens'' Mödling, Austria
For others see Wikispecies.
Butterfly closeup White and yellow butterfly feeding on a yellow flower in Maashorst, the Netherlands. Butterfly,Green-veined White,Insects,Maashorst,Pieris napi,Rhopalocera,The Netherlands

Distribution

A circumboreal species widespread across Europe and Asia, including the Indian subcontinent, Japan and the Maghreb and North America . It is found in meadows, hedgerows and woodland glades but not as often in gardens and parks like its close relatives the Large and Small Whites, for which it is often mistaken. Like other "white" butterflies, the sexes differ. The female has two spots on each forewing, the male only one. The veins on wings of the female are usually more heavily marked. The underside hindwings are pale yellow with the veins highlighted by black scales giving a greenish tint, hence Green-veined White. Unlike these two butterflies it rarely chooses garden cabbages to lay its eggs on, preferring wild crucifers.
Two Small White pairing Be sure to turn HD mode on

Dutch name: Klein Koolwitje (Pieris Rapae)                  Geotagged,Green-veined White,Pieris napi,Pieris rapae,Small White,The Netherlands

Behavior

The eggs are laid singularly on a wide range of foodplants including Hedge mustard ''Sisybrium officinale'' Garlic Mustard ''Alliaria petiolata'', Cuckooflower ''Cardamine pratense'', Water-cress ''Rorippa nastutium-aquaticum'', Charlock ''Sinapis arvensis'', Large bitter-cress ''Cardamine amara'', wild cabbage ''Brassica oleracea'' and wild Radish ''Raphanus raphanistrum'' and so it is rarely a pest in gardens. The caterpillar is green and well camouflaged. It is often found feeding on the same plant as the Orange Tip but never competes for food because it only feeds on the leaves whereas the Orange Tip caterpillar feeds on the flowers and developing seed pods. Like other ''Pieris'' spp. it overwinters as a pupa.Recent research has shown that when males mate with a female, they inject methyl salicylate along with their sperm. The smell of this compound repels other males, thus ensuring the first male's paternity of the eggs—a form of chemical mate guarding.

The adult male of this species has a distinctive odour that resembles lemon verbena.
Green-veined Butterfly and Halictid bee Lasioglossum sp. Pieris napi Bulgaria,Cabbage Butterfly,Geotagged,Green-veined White,Halictid bee,Large White,Lasioglossum sp.,Pieris napi,insect,lepidoptera,nature

Habitat

''Pieris napi'' is found in damp, grassy places with some shade, forest edges, hedgerows, meadows and wooded river valleys. The later generations, widen their catchment areas in the search for alternative forage crops in drier, but flowery places . In the Mediterranean the insect is also found in scrub around mountain streams or springs and on floodplains with ''Nasturtium officinale''. It is found from sea level to high altitude .
Large White on purple flower  Geotagged,Green-veined White,Pieris napi,The Netherlands

Food

The eggs are laid singularly on a wide range of foodplants including Hedge mustard ''Sisybrium officinale'' Garlic Mustard ''Alliaria petiolata'', Cuckooflower ''Cardamine pratense'', Water-cress ''Rorippa nastutium-aquaticum'', Charlock ''Sinapis arvensis'', Large bitter-cress ''Cardamine amara'', wild cabbage ''Brassica oleracea'' and wild Radish ''Raphanus raphanistrum'' and so it is rarely a pest in gardens. The caterpillar is green and well camouflaged. It is often found feeding on the same plant as the Orange Tip but never competes for food because it only feeds on the leaves whereas the Orange Tip caterpillar feeds on the flowers and developing seed pods. Like other ''Pieris'' spp. it overwinters as a pupa.

References:

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