Green-veined White

Pieris napi

The Green-veined White is a butterfly of the Pieridae family.
Pieris napi (Dutch name "klein geaderd witje")  Fall,Geotagged,Green-veined White,Netherlands,Pieris napi

Appearance

A circumboreal species widespread across Europe and Asia, including the Indian subcontinent, Japan and the Maghreb and North America . It is found in meadows, hedgerows and woodland glades but not as often in gardens and parks like its close relatives the Large and Small Whites, for which it is often mistaken. Like other "white" butterflies, the sexes differ. The female has two spots on each forewing, the male only one. The veins on wings of the female are usually more heavily marked. The underside hindwings are pale yellow with the veins highlighted by black scales giving a greenish tint, hence Green-veined White. Unlike these two butterflies it rarely chooses garden cabbages to lay its eggs on, preferring wild crucifers.
Butterfly closeup White and yellow butterfly feeding on a yellow flower in Maashorst, the Netherlands. Butterfly,Green-veined White,Insects,Maashorst,Pieris napi,Rhopalocera,The Netherlands

Naming

*''Pieris bryoniae''
⤷ ''Pieris ergane''
⤷ ''Pieris krueperi'' – Krüpers White
⤷ ''Pieris rapae'' – Small White*''Pieris napi adalwinda'' Finland, Sweden
⤷ ''Pieris napi meridionalis'' Heyne & Rühl, 1895, Spain, Italy
⤷ ''Pieris napi segonzaci'' High Atlas
⤷ ''Pieris napi maura'' Glacières de Blida, Algeria
⤷ ''Pieris napi atlantis'' Azrou, Middle Atlas, Morocco
⤷ ''Pieris napi flavescens'' Mödling, Austria
For others see Wikispecies.
Two Small White pairing Be sure to turn HD mode on

Dutch name: Klein Koolwitje (Pieris Rapae)                  Geotagged,Green-veined White,Pieris napi,Pieris rapae,Small White,The Netherlands

Distribution

A circumboreal species widespread across Europe and Asia, including the Indian subcontinent, Japan and the Maghreb and North America . It is found in meadows, hedgerows and woodland glades but not as often in gardens and parks like its close relatives the Large and Small Whites, for which it is often mistaken. Like other "white" butterflies, the sexes differ. The female has two spots on each forewing, the male only one. The veins on wings of the female are usually more heavily marked. The underside hindwings are pale yellow with the veins highlighted by black scales giving a greenish tint, hence Green-veined White. Unlike these two butterflies it rarely chooses garden cabbages to lay its eggs on, preferring wild crucifers.
Green-veined Butterfly and Halictid bee Lasioglossum sp. Pieris napi Bulgaria,Cabbage Butterfly,Geotagged,Green-veined White,Halictid bee,Large White,Lasioglossum sp.,Pieris napi,insect,lepidoptera,nature

Behavior

The eggs are laid singularly on a wide range of foodplants including Hedge mustard ''Sisybrium officinale'' Garlic Mustard ''Alliaria petiolata'', Cuckooflower ''Cardamine pratense'', Water-cress ''Rorippa nastutium-aquaticum'', Charlock ''Sinapis arvensis'', Large bitter-cress ''Cardamine amara'', wild cabbage ''Brassica oleracea'' and wild Radish ''Raphanus raphanistrum'' and so it is rarely a pest in gardens. The caterpillar is green and well camouflaged. It is often found feeding on the same plant as the Orange Tip but never competes for food because it only feeds on the leaves whereas the Orange Tip caterpillar feeds on the flowers and developing seed pods. Like other ''Pieris'' spp. it overwinters as a pupa.Recent research has shown that when males mate with a female, they inject methyl salicylate along with their sperm. The smell of this compound repels other males, thus ensuring the first male's paternity of the eggs—a form of chemical mate guarding.

The adult male of this species has a distinctive odour that resembles lemon verbena.
Large White on purple flower  Geotagged,Green-veined White,Pieris napi,The Netherlands

Habitat

''Pieris napi'' is found in damp, grassy places with some shade, forest edges, hedgerows, meadows and wooded river valleys. The later generations, widen their catchment areas in the search for alternative forage crops in drier, but flowery places . In the Mediterranean the insect is also found in scrub around mountain streams or springs and on floodplains with ''Nasturtium officinale''. It is found from sea level to high altitude .
Small White butterfly (Pieris Rapae) Dutch name: Klein koolwitje Austria,Geotagged,Green-veined White,Pieris napi,Pieris rapae,Small White

Food

The eggs are laid singularly on a wide range of foodplants including Hedge mustard ''Sisybrium officinale'' Garlic Mustard ''Alliaria petiolata'', Cuckooflower ''Cardamine pratense'', Water-cress ''Rorippa nastutium-aquaticum'', Charlock ''Sinapis arvensis'', Large bitter-cress ''Cardamine amara'', wild cabbage ''Brassica oleracea'' and wild Radish ''Raphanus raphanistrum'' and so it is rarely a pest in gardens. The caterpillar is green and well camouflaged. It is often found feeding on the same plant as the Orange Tip but never competes for food because it only feeds on the leaves whereas the Orange Tip caterpillar feeds on the flowers and developing seed pods. Like other ''Pieris'' spp. it overwinters as a pupa.

References:

Some text fragments are auto parsed from Wikipedia.

Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionArthropoda
ClassInsecta
OrderLepidoptera
FamilyPieridae
GenusPieris
SpeciesP. napi