Bullsnake

Pituophis catenifer sayi

The bullsnake is a large nonvenomous colubrid snake. It is currently considered a subspecies of the gopher snake .
Juvenile Bullsnake Second imager capture: https://www.jungledragon.com/image/69732/bull_snake-2.html
Adult Size: Adults of this hefty snake differ in size populationally. Some may be adult at 3 to 4 feet. Most routinely attain a length of 6 to 7 feet. The largest authenticated example was 8⅓ feet long.
Range: Over most of its range this is an abundant snake. Its range extends southward from the southernmost Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan to the state of Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico.
Habitat: A snake of semiarid and aridlands, the bullsnake wanders widely, but is most often seen in and near clumps of vegetation or along watercourses or crossing roadways near livestock watering tanks. Bullsnake,Fall,Geotagged,Pituophis catenifer sayi,United States

Appearance

Adult bullsnakes average about 4 to 6 feet in total length, and specimens of up to 8 feet 4 inches have been recorded. Adult specimens can have an average weight in the range of 1–1.5 kg , though the heavier known specimens can attain 3.6–4.5 kg , larger specimens being quite bulky for a colubrid snake. This makes the bullsnake among the largest snakes native to Canada and the United States, although it is generally not as long as indigo snakes nor as heavy or as large in diameter as rattlesnakes. They are usually yellow, with brown, white, black or sometimes reddish blotching. The blotching pattern is as follows: large blotches on top, three sets of spots on the sides, and bands of black on the tail. Many color variations have been found, including albinos and white varieties. A scale count is required to distinguish juvenile bullsnakes from other juvenile gopher snakes.
Bullsnake  Bullsnake,Fall,Geotagged,Pituophis catenifer sayi,United States

Behavior

Though some bullsnakes can be docile, and with some time become accustomed to handling, most bullsnakes are quite defensive and known for their perceived "bad attitude".

When bullsnakes detect live objects too big to be prey they seem to perceive the object as a predator and take defensive action. Their first action is to remain quiet, not moving. Then when they feel they are able to move away from the object their next line of defensive is to move away as quickly as possible. Bullsnakes, however, are not fast movers and often have to take other defensive actions. When threatened by anything as large as a human, a bullsnake's next defensive action is to rear up and make itself look as large as possible while at the same time hissing at the perceived threat. It typically then begins lunging and retreating at the same time in order to escape.

Bullsnakes are sometimes mistaken for rattlesnakes and killed. Owing to its coloration, dorsal pattern, and semi-keeled scalation, the bullsnake superficially resembles the western diamondback rattler , which is also common within the same range. The bullsnake capitalizes on this similarity by performing an impressive rattlesnake impression when threatened. First, it hisses, or forcibly exhales through a glottis or extension of the windpipe. The end of the glottis is covered by a piece of cartilage known as the epiglottis which flaps back and forth when air is exhaled from the right lung producing a convincing rattling sound. It also adopts a rattlesnake-like "S-curve" body posture as though about to strike. It will commonly vibrate its tail rapidly in brush or leaves, and flatten its head to resemble the characteristic triangular shape of the rattlesnake. These defensive behaviors are meant to scare away threats, however, and not to sound an attack.

In contrast to rattlesnakes, which usually keep their tail elevated in order to sound the most efficient rattle, bullsnakes tend to keep their tail in contact with the ground, where it can be vibrated against something.
Second Bullsnake Capture Original image:https://www.jungledragon.com/image/69730/juvenile_bullsnake.html Bullsnake,Fall,Geotagged,Pituophis catenifer sayi,United States

Reproduction

Bullsnakes breed in March or April and usually lay their eggs in April, May or June They lay on average a dozen eggs in sand or other protected areas and leave the eggs to incubate unprotected. Clutches of 5-22 eggs have been observed. The eggs are elliptical, leathery, rough, sticky, and up to 70 mm long. The eggs typically hatch in August or September. Baby bullsnakes are 20–46 cm at hatching. Their color is grayish until after their first shed.

Food

Bullsnakes are very powerful constrictors who eat small mammals, such as mice, voles, rats, pocket gophers, ground squirrels, and rabbits, as well as ground nesting birds, birds' eggs and lizards.They are also great climbers and will climb into trees and other structures to raid the nests of birds to eat the nestlings or sitting mother. One snake can eat 5 small birds within 15 minutes. Juvenile bullsnakes depend on small lizards, frogs, and baby mice. Bullsnakes kill their prey via constriction.

The idea that bullsnakes occasionally eat rattlesnakes is sometimes given as a reason for humans not to harm bullsnakes when encountering them in the wild, although a better reason is the bullsnake's role in controlling warm-blooded vermin such as rodents.

References:

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Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassReptilia
OrderSquamata
FamilyColubridae
GenusPituophis
SpeciesP. catenifer