Nepenthes ampullaria

Nepenthes ampullaria

''Nepenthes ampullaria'' is a very distinctive and widespread species of tropical pitcher plant, present in Borneo, the Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, and Thailand.

''Nepenthes ampullaria'', unlike other members of its genus, has evolved away from carnivory and the plants are partly detritivores, collecting and digesting falling leaf litter in their pitchers.

In the 1996 book ''Pitcher-Plants of Borneo'', ''N. ampullaria'' is given the vernacular name flask-shaped pitcher-plant. This name, along with all others, was dropped from the much-expanded second edition, published in 2008.
Young Pitcher Young pitcher of Nepenthes ampullaria.
Nepenthes ampullaria is a very distinctive and widespread species of tropical pitcher plant, present in Borneo, the Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, and Thailand. Nepenthes ampullaria, unlike other members of its genus, has evolved away from carnivory and the plants are partly detritivores, collecting and digesting falling leaf litter in their pitchers. Geotagged,Malaysia,Nepenthes ampullaria,Pitcher plant,Spring

Appearance

Due to its unique pitcher morphology and unusual growth habit, it is difficult to confuse ''N. ampullaria'' with any other species in the genus. Francis Ernest Lloyd translated Troll's 1932 account of this species as follows:

"I came across ''N. ampullaria'' among the massive vegetations of a swamp-forest on the island of Siberut off the west coast of Sumatra. It was a fabulous, unforgettable sight. Everywhere, through the network of lianas the peculiarly-formed pitchers of this species gleamed forth, often in tight clusters and, most remarkably, the muddy moss-overgrown soil was spotted with the pitchers of this plant, so that one got the impression of a carpet."

The stem of ''N. ampullaria'' is light brown in colour and may climb to 15 m in height. Leaves are light green, up to 25 cm long, and 6 cm wide. Pitchers are produced at the ends of short tendrils no more than 15 cm long.

The urceolate pitchers are generally quite small, rarely exceeding 10 cm in height and 7 cm in width. The peristome is greatly incurved, with the inner section accounting for around 85% of its total cross-sectional surface length. Upper pitchers are very rarely produced and are considerably smaller than those formed on rosettes or offshoots. Pitchers range in colouration from light green throughout to completely dark red, with many intermediate forms recorded. The pitchers of ''N. ampullaria'' from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia are almost exclusively green throughout or green with red speckles; the red forms are mostly confined to Borneo. A large-pitchered form has been recorded from New Guinea.

The inflorescence of ''N. ampullaria'' is a dense panicle. It is the only ''Nepenthes'' species recorded from Sumatra or Peninsular Malaysia that produces paniculate inflorescences.

All parts of the plant are densely covered with short, brown hairs when young. The indumentum of mature plants is more sparse, except on the inflorescenes.
Pitcher plant Found in Kayangeran Forest Reserve, Sarawak  Nepenthes ampullaria,Sarawak

Distribution

One of the most widespread ''Nepenthes'' species, ''N. ampullaria'' is native to Borneo, the Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, and Thailand. It has also been recorded from many smaller islands, including Bangka, Bengkalis, Ko Lanta, Ko Tarutao, Langkawi, Mendol, Mentawai Islands , Meranti Islands , Nias, Penang, Riau Islands , and Rupat.

''Nepenthes ampullaria'' generally grows in damp, shady forest from sea-level to 2100 m altitude. In Borneo, it occurs usually on relatively flat terrain in ''kerangas'' forest, peat swamp forest, and degraded swamp forest, at elevations of 0 to 1000 m.

In Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, it grows from sea-level to 1100 m altitude on flat terrain in heath forest, ''padang'' , ''belukar'', peat swamp forest, degraded swamp forest, and in padi fields.

In New Guinea, it is predominantly present in ''Araucaria'' forests. The species has also been recorded from secondary forests, open microphyllous vegetation, and swamp grassland.
Pitcher Plants  Geotagged,Malaysia,Nepenthes ampullaria,Pitcher Plants,Sarawak,Summer

Habitat

One of the most widespread ''Nepenthes'' species, ''N. ampullaria'' is native to Borneo, the Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, and Thailand. It has also been recorded from many smaller islands, including Bangka, Bengkalis, Ko Lanta, Ko Tarutao, Langkawi, Mendol, Mentawai Islands , Meranti Islands , Nias, Penang, Riau Islands , and Rupat.

''Nepenthes ampullaria'' generally grows in damp, shady forest from sea-level to 2100 m altitude. In Borneo, it occurs usually on relatively flat terrain in ''kerangas'' forest, peat swamp forest, and degraded swamp forest, at elevations of 0 to 1000 m.

In Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, it grows from sea-level to 1100 m altitude on flat terrain in heath forest, ''padang'' , ''belukar'', peat swamp forest, degraded swamp forest, and in padi fields.

In New Guinea, it is predominantly present in ''Araucaria'' forests. The species has also been recorded from secondary forests, open microphyllous vegetation, and swamp grassland.

References:

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Status: Unknown
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionAngiosperms
ClassEudicots
OrderCaryophyllales
FamilyNepenthaceae
GenusNepenthes
SpeciesN. ampullaria
Photographed in
Malaysia