Nepenthes rajah

Nepenthes rajah

''Nepenthes rajah'' /nᵻˈpɛnθiːz ˈrɑːdʒə/ is an insectivorous pitcher plant species of the Nepenthaceae family. It is endemic to Mount Kinabalu and neighbouring Mount Tambuyukon in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. ''Nepenthes rajah'' grows exclusively on serpentine substrates, particularly in areas of seeping ground water where the soil is loose and permanently moist. The species has an altitudinal range of 1500 to 2650 m a.s.l. and is thus considered a highland or sub-alpine plant. Due to its localised distribution, ''N. rajah'' is classified as an endangered species by the IUCN and listed on CITES Appendix I.

The species was collected by Hugh Low on Mount Kinabalu in 1858, and described the following year by Joseph Dalton Hooker, who named it after James Brooke, the first White Rajah of Sarawak. Hooker called it "one of the most striking vegetable productions hither-to discovered". Since being introduced into cultivation in 1881, ''Nepenthes rajah'' has always been a much sought-after species. For a long time, the plant was seldom seen in private collections due to its rarity, price, and specialised growing requirements. However, recent advances in tissue culture technology have resulted in prices falling dramatically, and ''N. rajah'' is now relatively widespread in cultivation.

''Nepenthes rajah'' is most famous for the giant urn-shaped traps it produces, which can grow up to 41 cm high and 20 cm wide. These are capable of holding 3.5 litres of water...hieroglyph snipped... and in excess of 2.5 litres of digestive fluid, making them probably the largest in the genus by volume. Another morphological feature of ''N. rajah'' is the peltate leaf attachment of the lamina and tendril, which is present in only a few other species.

The plant is known to occasionally trap vertebrates and even small mammals, with drowned rats having been observed in the pitcher-shaped traps. It is one of only two ''Nepenthes'' species documented as having caught mammalian prey in the wild, the other being ''N. rafflesiana''. ''N. rajah'' is also known to occasionally trap small vertebrates such as frogs, lizards and even birds, although these cases probably involve sick animals and certainly do not represent the norm. Insects, and particularly ants, comprise the staple prey in both aerial and terrestrial pitchers.

Although ''Nepenthes rajah'' is most famous for trapping and digesting animals, its pitchers are also host to a large number of other organisms, which are thought to form a mutually beneficial association with the plant. Many of these animals are so specialised that they cannot survive anywhere else, and are referred to as nepenthebionts. ''N. rajah'' has two such mosquito taxa named after it: ''Culex rajah'' and ''Toxorhynchites rajah''.

Another key feature of ''N. rajah'' is the relative ease with which it is able to hybridise in the wild. Hybrids between it and all other ''Nepenthes'' species on Mount Kinabalu have been recorded. However, due to the slow-growing nature of ''N. rajah'', few hybrids involving the species have been artificially produced yet.
Nepenthes rajah Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Aug 2, 2008. Geotagged,Malaysia,Nepenthes rajah,Summer

Appearance

''Nepenthes rajah'', like virtually all species in the genus, is a scrambling vine. The stem usually grows along the ground, but will attempt to climb whenever it comes into contact with an object that can support it. The stem is relatively thick and may reach up to 6 m in length, although it rarely exceeds 3 m. ''N. rajah'' does not produce runners as some other species in the genus, but older plants are known to form basal offshoots. This is especially common in plants from tissue culture, where numerous offshoots may form at a young age.The root system of ''N. rajah'' is notably extensive, although it is relatively shallow as in most ''Nepenthes'' species.

All parts of the plant are covered in long, white hairs when young, but mature plants are virtually glabrous . This covering of hair is known as the indumentum.

The colour of herbarium specimens is dark-brown in varying hues .

Little variation has been observed within natural populations of ''Nepenthes rajah'' and, consequently, no forms or varieties have been described. Furthermore, ''N. rajah'' has no true nomenclatural synonyms, unlike many other ''Nepenthes'' species, which exhibit greater variability.

Naming

Joseph Dalton Hooker described ''Nepenthes rajah'' in 1859, naming it in honour of Sir James Brooke, the first White Rajah of Sarawak. In the past, the Latin name was written as ''Nepenthes Rajah'', since it derives from a proper noun. However, this capitalisation is considered incorrect today. 'Rajah Brooke's Pitcher Plant' is an accurate, but seldom-used common name. ''N. rajah'' is also sometimes called the 'Giant Malaysian Pitcher Plant' or simply 'Giant Pitcher Plant', although the binomial name remains by far the most popular way of referring to this species. The specific epithet ''rajah'' means "King" in Malay and this, coupled with the impressive size of its pitchers, has meant that ''N. rajah'' is often referred to as the "King of ''Nepenthes''".
As the size and shape of ''Nepenthes'' pitchers vary greatly between species, but little within a given taxon, it is not surprising that many infaunal organisms are specially adapted to life in only the traps of particular species. ''N. rajah'' is no exception, and in fact has two mosquito taxa named after it. ''Culex rajah'' and ''Toxorhynchites rajah'' were described by Masuhisa Tsukamoto in 1989, based on larvae collected in pitchers of ''N. rajah'' on Mount Kinabalu three years earlier. The two species were found to live in association with larvae of ''Culex jenseni'', ''Uranotaenia moultoni'' and an undescribed taxon, ''Tripteroides '' sp. No. 2. Concerning ''C. rajah'', Tsukamoto noted that the "body surface of most larvae are covered in ''Vorticella''-like protozoa". At present, nothing is known of this species with regards to its adult biology, habitat, or medical importance as a vector of diseases. The same is true for ''T. rajah''; nothing is known of its biology except that adults are not haematophagous.



Another species, ''Culex shebbearei'', has also been recorded as an infaunal organism of ''N. rajah'' in the past. The original 1931 record by F. W. Edwards is based on a collection by H. M. Pendlebury in 1929 from a plant growing on Mount Kinabalu. However, Tsukamoto notes that in light of new information on these species, "it seems more likely to conclude that the species [''C. rajah''] is a new species which has been misidentitied as ''C. shebbearei'' for a long time, rather than to think that both ''C. shebbearei'' and ''C. rajah'' n. sp. are living in pitchers of ''Nepenthes rajah'' on Mt. Kinabalu".In 1998, a striking new species of ''Nepenthes'' was discovered in the Philippines by Andreas Wistuba. Temporarily dubbed ''N.'' sp. Palawan 1, it bears a close resemblance to ''N. rajah'' in terms of pitcher and leaf morphology. In 2007, the species was described by Wistuba and Joachim Nerz as ''N. mantalingajanensis''.

''Nepenthes rajah'' is classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is also listed on Schedule I, Part II of the Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997 and CITES Appendix I,...hieroglyph snipped... which prohibits international trade in plants collected from the wild. However, due to its popularity among collectors, many plants have been removed from the wild illegally, even though the species' distribution lies entirely within the bounds of Kinabalu Park. This led to some populations being severely depleted by over-collection in the 1970s and eventually resulted in the species' inclusion in CITES Appendix I in 1981. Together with ''N. khasiana'', it is one of only two species in the genus to feature on this list; all other ''Nepenthes'' species are covered by Appendix II.

This being the case, however, the short-term future of ''N. rajah'' seems to be relatively secure and it would perhaps be more accurately classified as or, taking into account protected populations in National Parks, Lower Risk conservation dependent ). This agrees with the conservation status of ''N. rajah'' according to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre , under which it is also considered Vulnerable. Furthermore, the species was originally treated as Vulnerable by the IUCN prior to the introduction of the 1994 threat categories.

Although ''N. rajah'' has a restricted distribution and is often quoted as a plant in peril, it is not rare in the areas where it does grow and most populations are now off-limits to visitors and lie in remote parts of Kinabalu National Park. Furthermore, ''N. rajah'' has a distinctive leaf shape making it difficult to illegally ship abroad even if the pitchers are removed, as an informed customs official should be able to identify it.

The recent advent of artificial tissue culture, or more specifically ''in vitro'', technology in Europe and the United States has meant that plants can be produced in large numbers and sold at relatively low prices . ''In vitro'' propagation refers to production of whole plants from cell cultures derived from explants . This technology has, to a large extent, removed the incentive for collectors to travel to Sabah to collect the plant illegally, and demand for wild-collected plants has fallen considerably in recent years.

Rob Cantley, a prominent conservationist and artificial propagator of ''Nepenthes'' plants, assesses the current status of plants in the wild as follows:

This species grows in at least 2 distinct sub-populations, both of which are well protected by Sabah National Parks Authority. One of the populations grows in an area public access to which is strictly prohibited without permit. However, there has been a decline in population of mature individuals in the better known and less patrolled site. This is largely due to damage to habitat and plants by careless visitors rather than organised collection of plants. Nepenthes rajah has become common in cultivation in recent years as a result of the availability of inexpensive clones from tissue culture. I believe that these days commercial collection of this species from the wild is negligible.

This being the case, however, it appears that the genetic variability of cultivated ''N. rajah'' plants is very small, as all commercially available tissue-cultured plants are thought to belong to just four clones originating from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in London, England.

However, illegal collection is not the only threat facing plants in the wild. The El Niño climatic phenomenon of 1997/98 had a catastrophic effect on the ''Nepenthes'' species on Mount Kinabalu. The dry period that followed severely depleted some natural populations. Forest fires broke out in 9 locations in Kinabalu Park, covering a total area of 25 square kilometres and generating large amounts of smog. During the El Niño period, many plants were temporarily transferred to the park nursery to save at least some individuals. These were later replanted in the "''Nepenthes'' Garden" in Mesilau . In spite of this, ''N. rajah'' was one of the less affected species and relatively few plants perished as a result. Since then, Ansow Gunsalam has established a nursery close to the Mesilau Lodge at the base of Kinabalu Park to protect the endangered species of that area, including ''N. rajah''.

Distribution

The newly opened Mesilau Nature Resort, which lies near the golf course behind the village of Kundasang, is now the only place where regular visitors can hope to see this species in its natural habitat. Here, several dozen ''N. rajah'' plants grow near the top of a steep landslide. Both young and mature plants are present, some with sizable pitchers that may occasionally exceed 40 cm in height . Daily guided tours are organised to the "''Nepenthes'' Garden" where these plants are located. The "''Nepenthes rajah'' Nature Trail" is subject to a fee and operates daily from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm. Almost all other natural populations of this species occur in remote parts of Kinabalu National Park, which are off-limits to tourists. Visitors to the park can also see ''N. rajah'' on display in the nursery adjoining the "Mountain Garden" at Kinabalu Park Headquarters.

Other known localities of wild ''N. rajah'' populations include the Marai Parai plateau, Mesilau East River near Mesilau Cave, the Upper Kolopis River, and the eastern slope of Mount Tambuyukon. On Pig Hill, ''N. rajah'' grows at 1950–2320 m and is sympatric with ''N. burbidgeae'', ''N. tentaculata'', and the natural hybrid ''N. × alisaputrana''.

Habitat

''Nepenthes rajah'' is a montane species or "highlander", growing at altitudes ranging from 1500 to 2650 m. As such, it requires warm days, with temperatures ranging from approximately 25 to 30 ℃, and cool nights, with temperatures of about 10 to 15 ℃. Here, it is important to note that the temperatures themselves are not vital , but rather the temperature drop itself; ''N. rajah'' needs considerably cooler nights, with a drop of 10 ℃ or more being preferable. Failure to observe this requirement will almost certainly doom the plant in the long term or, at best, limit it to being a small, unimpressive specimen.

In addition, like all ''Nepenthes'', this plant needs a fairly humid environment to grow well. Values in the region of 75% R.H. are generally considered optimal, with increased humidity at night . However, ''N. rajah'' does tolerate fluctuations in humidity, especially when young, provided that the air does not become too dry . Humidity can be easily controlled using an ultrasonic humidifier in conjunction with a humidistat.



In its natural habitat, ''N. rajah'' grows in open areas, where it is exposed to direct sunlight – it therefore needs to be provided with a significant amount of light in cultivation as well. To meet this need, many growers have used metal halide lamps in the 500–1000 watt range, with considerable success. The plant should be situated a fair distance from the light source, 1 to 2 m is recommended. Depending on location, growers can utilise natural sunlight as a source of illumination. However, this is only recommended for those living in equatorial regions, where light intensity is sufficient to satisfy the needs of the plant. A photoperiod of 12 hours is comparable to that experienced in nature, since Borneo lies on the equator.

Food

''Nepenthes rajah'' is a carnivorous plant and, as such, supplements nutrients gained from the soil with captured prey to alleviate deficiencies in important elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Just as in nature, a cultivated plant's 'diet' may include insects and other prey items, although this is not necessary for successful cultivation. Crickets are recommended for their size and low cost. These can be purchased online or at specialist pet stores. They can simply be dropped into the pitchers by hand or placed inside using metal tongs or similar, whether dead or alive.

From trials carried out by a commercial ''Nepenthes'' nursery, it appears that micronutrient solutions have "a beneficial effect on plants of improved leaf colouration, with no deleterious effects" as far as can be seen. However, more research is required to verify these results. Actual fertilisers were, on the other hand, found to "cause damage to plants, promote pathogens and have no observable benefits". Hence, the use of chemical fertilisers is usually not advised.

''Nepenthes rajah'' is a slow growing ''Nepenthes''. Under optimal conditions, ''N. rajah'' can reach flowering size within 10 years of seed germination.

Evolution

: ''See also: Timeline of Nepenthes rajah and its natural hybrids''


Due to its size, unusual morphology and striking colouration, ''N. rajah'' has always been a very popular and highly sought-after insectivorous plant. However, despite its popularity amongst pitcher plant enthusiasts, ''N. rajah'' remains a little-known species outside the field of carnivorous plants. Due to its specialised growing requirements, it is not a suitable candidate for a houseplant and, as such, is only cultivated by a relatively small number of hobbyists and professional growers worldwide. This being the case, ''N. rajah'' is nonetheless probably the most famous of all pitcher plants. Its reputation for producing some of the most magnificent pitchers in the genus dates back to the late 19th century.

''Nepenthes rajah'' was first collected by Hugh Low on Mount Kinabalu in 1858. It was described the following year by Joseph Dalton Hooker, who named it after James Brooke, the first White Rajah of Sarawak. The description was published in ''The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London'':

''Nepenthes Rajah'', H. f. . Foliis maximis 2-pedalibus, oblongo-lanceolatis petiolo costaque crassissimis, ascidiis giganteis ampullaceis ore contracto, stipite folio peltatim affixo, annulo maximo lato everso crebre lamellato, operculo amplissimo ovato-cordato, ascidium totum æquante.—

''Hab.''—Borneo, north coast, on Kina Balu, alt. 5,000 feet . This wonderful plant is certainly one of the most striking vegetable productions hitherto discovered, and, in this respect, is worthy of taking place side by side with the ''Rafflesia Arnoldii''. It hence bears the title of my friend Rajah Brooke, of whose services, in its native place, it may be commemorative among botanists. . . . I have only two specimens of leaves and pitchers, both quite similar, but one
twice as large as the other. Of these, the leaf of the larger is 18 inches long, exclusive of the petioles, which is as thick as the thumb and 7–8 broad, very coriaceous and glabrous, with indistinct nerves. The stipes of the pitcher is given off below the apex of the leaf, is 20 inches long, and as thick as the finger. The broad ampullaceous pitcher is 6 inches in diameter, and 12 long: it has two fimbriated wings in front, is covered with long rusty hairs above, is wholly studded with glands within, and the broad annulus is everted, and 1–1½ inch in diameter. Operculum shortly stipitate, 10 inches long and 8 broad.

The inflorescence is hardly in proportion. Male raceme, 30 inches long, of which 20 are occupied by the flowers; upper part and flowers clothed with short rusty pubescence. Peduncles slender, simple or bifid. Fruiting raceme stout. Peduncles 1½ inches long, often bifid. Capsule, ¾ inch long, ⅓ broad, rather turgid, densely covered with rusty tomentum.



Spenser St. John wrote the following account of his encounter with ''N. rajah'' on Mount Kinabalu in ''Life in the Forests of the Far East'' published in 1862:

Another steep climb of 800 feet brought us to the Marei Parei spur, to the spot where the ground was covered with the magnificent pitcher-plants, of which we had come in search. This one has been called the ''Nepenthes Rajah'', and is a plant about four feet in length, with broad leaves stretching on every side, having the great pitchers resting on the ground in a circle about it. Their shape and size are remarkable. I will give the measurement of one, to indicate the form: the length along the back nearly fourteen inches; from the base to the top of the column in front, five inches; and its lid a foot long by fourteen inches broad, and of an oval shape. Its mouth was surrounded by a plaited pile, which near the column was two inches broad, lessening in its narrowest part to three-quarters of an inch. The plaited pile of the mouth was also undulating in broad waves. Near the stem the pitcher is four inches deep, so that the mouth is situated upon it in a triangular manner. The colour of an old chalice is a deep purple, but that of the others is generally mauve outside, very dark indeed in the lower part, though lighter towards the rim; the inside is of the same colour, but has a kind of glazed and shiny appearance. The lid is mauve in the centre, shading to green at the edges. The stems of the female flowers we found always a foot shorter than those of the male, and the former were far less numerous than the latter. It is indeed one of the most astonishing productions of nature.

[...] The pitchers, as I have before observed, rest on the ground in a circle, and the young plants have cups of the same form as those of the old ones. While the men were cooking their rice, we sat before the tent enjoying our chocolate and observing one of our followers carrying water in a splendid specimen of the ''Nepenthes Rajah'', desired him to bring it to us, and found that it held exactly four pint bottles. It was 19 inches in circumference. We afterwards saw others apparently much larger, and Mr. Low, while wandering in search of flowers, came upon one in which was a drowned rat.


''Nepenthes rajah'' was first collected for the Veitch Nurseries by Frederick William Burbidge in 1878, during his second trip to Borneo. Shortly after being introduced into cultivation in 1881, ''N. rajah'' proved very popular among wealthy Victorian horticulturalists and became a much sought-after species. A note in ''The Gardeners' Chronicle'' of 1881 mentions the Veitch plant as follows: "''N. rajah'' at present is only a young Rajah, what it will become was lately illustrated in our columns...". A year later, young ''N. rajah'' plants were displayed at the Royal Horticultural Society's annual show for the first time. The specimen exhibited at the show by the Veitch Nurseries, the first of this species to be cultivated in Europe, won a first class certificate. In Veitch's catalogue for 1889, ''N. rajah'' was priced at £2.2s per plant. During this time, interest in ''Nepenthes'' had reached its peak. ''The Garden'' reported that ''Nepenthes'' were being propagated by the thousands to keep up with European demand.

However, dwindling interest in ''Nepenthes'' at the turn of the century saw the demise of the Veitch Nurseries and consequently the loss of several species and hybrids in cultivation, including ''N. northiana'' and ''N. rajah''. By 1905, the final ''N. rajah'' specimens from the Veitch nurseries were gone, as the cultural requirements of the plants proved too difficult to reproduce. The last surviving ''N. rajah'' in cultivation at this time was located at the National Botanic Gardens at Glasnevin in Ireland, however this soon perished also. It would be many years before ''N. rajah'' was reintroduced into cultivation.

{{hidden|ta1=left|Click [show] to view a list of early publications, illustrations, and collections of ''Nepenthes rajah''.|Early publications: Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 421 t. LXXII ; MIQ., Ill., p. 8 ; HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 95 ; MAST., Gard. Chron., 1881, 2, p. 492 ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 ; REG., Gartenfl., XXXII, p. 213, ic. p. 214 ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 3 & 8 ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 ; STAPF, Transact. Linn. Soc., ser. 2, bot., IV, p. 217 ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 142, ic. 1 ; MOTT., Dict., III, p. 451 ; VEITCH, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc., XXI, p. 234 ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 ; HEMSL., Bot. Mag., t. 8017 ; Gard. Chron., 1905, 2, p. 241 ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 46 ; in BAIL., Cycl., IV, p. 2129, ic. 2462, 3 ; MERR., Bibl. Enum. Born., p. 284 ; DANS., Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 202, ic. 7 .

Early illustrations: Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, t. LXXII optima; Gard. Chron., 1881, 2, p. 493 bona, asc. 1 ; Gartenfl., 1883, p. 214 bona, asc. 1 ; Wien. Ill. Gartenfl., 1895, p. 143, ic. 1 asc. 1 ; Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc., XXI, p. 228 optima; Bot. Mag., t. 8017 optima; BAIL., Cycl., IV, ic. 2462, 3 asc. 1 ; Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 203 asc. 1.

Early collections: North Borneo. Mt. Kinabalu, IX 1913, Herbarium of the Sarawak Museum ; Marai-parai Spur, 1-4 XII 1915, Clemens 11073, Herbarium Bogoriense, the Herbarium of the Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens ; 1650 m, 1892, Haviland 1812/1852, Herbarium of the Sarawak Museum .}}

History and timeline

at:1858 text:"1858: Hugh Low collects Nepenthes rajah for the first time"
at:1859 text:"1859: Joseph Dalton Hooker describes and names the new species"
at:1862 text:"1862: Spenser St. John finds a drowned rat in a pitcher of N. rajah"
at:1863 text:"1862: N. rajah appears in ''Life in the Forests of the Far East''"
at:1869 text:"1869: Alfred R. Wallace mentions N. rajah in ''The Malay Archipelago''
at:1873 text:"1873: Hooker places N. rajah in the Eunepenthes"
at:1878 text:"1878: F. W. Burbidge collects N. rajah for the Veitch Nurseries"
at:1881 text:"1881: N. rajah appears in ''The Gardeners' Chronicle''"
at:1882 text:"1882: Plants are displayed at the RHS's annual show"
at:1883 text:"1883: N. rajah appears in the botanical journal ''Gartenflora''"
at:1892 text:"1892: Haviland collects specimens for the Sarawak Museum"
at:1895 text:"1895: G. M. L. Beck places N. rajah in the Apruinosae"
at:1897 text:"1897: N. rajah appears in the Journal of the RHS"
at:1904 text:"1905: N. rajah appears in ''Curtis's Botanical Magazine''"
at:1905 text:"1905: The final N. rajah plants of the Veitch Nurseries die"
at:1906 text:"1906: N. rajah is lost from cultivation, as the last surviving plant dies"
at:1908 text:"1908: John Muirhead Macfarlane revises the genus once more"
at:1910 text:"1910: N. × kinabaluensis is collected for the first time by L. Gibbs"
at:1914 text:"1914: Macfarlane suggests it might represent N. rajah × N. villosa"
at:1915 text:"1915: Clemens collects specimens for the Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens"
at:1921 text:"1921: N. rajah appears in the ''Bibl. Enum. Born.'' botanical journal"
at:1927 text:"1927: N. rajah appears in the ''Tropical Nature'' botanical journal"
at:1928 text:"1928: B. H. Danser places N. rajah within the Regiae clade"
at:1929 text:"1929: H. M. Pendlebury makes the first collection of Culex rajah"
at:1931 text:"1931: F. W. Edwards incorrectly identifies it as C. shebbearei"
at:1936 text:"1936: H. Harms includes N. rajah in the Eunepenthes once more"
at:1974 text:"1974: S. Kurata collects the holotype of N. × kinabaluensis "
at:1976 text:"1976: N. rajah appears on the cover of ''Nepenthes of Mount Kinabalu''"
at:1977 text:"1976: N. × kinabaluensis is described by Kurata"
at:1981 text:"1981: N. rajah is placed on CITES Appendix I"
at:1983 text:"1983: T. C. Gibson publishes the first cultivation guide for N. rajah"
at:1984 text:"1984: Kurata describes N. rajah × N. villosa as N. × kinabaluensis"
at:1986 text:"1986: A. Slack illustrates N. burbidgeae × N. rajah as N. rajah"
at:1987 text:"1988: A. Phillipps and A. Lamb find a rat caught by N. rajah"
at:1988 text:"1988: J. H. Adam collects the holotype of N. kinabaluensis "
at:1989 text:"1988: Adam and A. Mahdi collect the holotype of N. × alisaputrana
at:1990 text:"1989: M. Tsukamoto describes Culex rajah and Toxorhynchites rajah
at:1991 text:"1992: G. Cheers illustrates N. × kinabaluensis as N. rajah"
at:1992 text:"1992: Nepenthes × alisaputrana is described by Adam and Wilcock"
at:1995 text:"1996: Malaysia releases a postage stamp depicting N. rajah"
at:1996 text:"1996: Adam and Wilcock describe Nepenthes kinabaluensis"
at:1997 text:"1997: N. rajah appears on the cover of ''Nepenthes of Borneo''
at:1998 text:"1997: N. rajah is listed on Schedule I, Part II of the WCE"
at:2000 text:"2000: N. rajah is listed on the IUCN Red List as Endangered"
at:2001 text:"2001: N. × kinabaluensis appears on the cover of Clarke's guide
at:2002 text:"2002: Biochemical analysis is conducted on N. rajah et al.

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Status: Endangered
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionAngiosperms
ClassEudicots
OrderCaryophyllales
FamilyNepenthaceae
GenusNepenthes
SpeciesN. rajah
Photographed in
Malaysia