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Unknown spotting - Fungus Gnat - Mosquito-do-Fungo Date: 14th of April, 2018 at 08:48:24pm.<br />
Found on the 16th floor of a flat in an urban habitat.<br />
<br />
Second picture: <figure class="photo"><a href="https://www.jungledragon.com/image/60827/unknown_spotting_-_fungus_gnat_-_mosquito-do-fungo.html" title="Unknown spotting - Fungus Gnat - Mosquito-do-Fungo"><img src="https://s3.amazonaws.com/media.jungledragon.com/images/3305/60827_thumb.jpg?AWSAccessKeyId=05GMT0V3GWVNE7GGM1R2&Expires=1660176010&Signature=LHnmzU7XMkP%2BRKxDD%2FGtIzPQ%2BSU%3D" width="142" height="152" alt="Unknown spotting - Fungus Gnat - Mosquito-do-Fungo Date: 14th of April, 2018 at 08:47:51pm.<br />
Found on the 16th floor in a flat in an urban habitat.<br />
<br />
Full post here: https://www.jungledragon.com/image/60826/unknown_spotting_-_fungus_gnat_-_mosquito-do-fungo.html Arthropoda,Arthropods,Bibionomorpha,Brazil,Brazilian Dipterans,Diptera,Dipteran,Fall,Geotagged Animalia,Insecta,Mycetophilidae,Nematocera,Sciaroidea,arthropod,brasil,insect,insects,inseto,insetos,unidentified" /></a></figure><br />
<br />
There is no way for me to accurately identify this. Mycetophilidae was recently split in several difficult to diagnose subfamiliae, according to Doug Yanega, entomologist. As such, there is no way for me to go beyond the family level. Definitely a member of the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Bibionomorpha, superfamily Sciaroidea and family Mycetophilidae in the sensu lato. Unfortunately, until the taxonomic complications in this individual gets attenuated, I won&#039;t be able to go further, nor will any friend of mine.<br />
 <br />
A few Mycetophilids are able to display bioluminescence in the larval stage, but some may display it during the pupa stage and the adult stage. This is due to the predatory habits of some larvae, which uses the light to attract their prey. This has two sides, though. While it may attract prey, it can also attract predators. You can find all this information and the genera included in the sensu lato of Mycetophilidae here: <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycetophilidae" rel="nofollow">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycetophilidae</a><br />
 <br />
Identification is difficult and diagnosing characters might not be accurate. It is believed that traits that can be considered are the humped thorax, stout and elongate coxae, well-developed tibial spurs, subtle differences in the wing venations and variation in chaetotaxy and genitalia. These are called &quot;fungus gnats&quot; because the larvae feed on fungi, spores, hyphae, mosses, liverworts (these last two occurring only in a few species) and prey (partly predatory, mainly focusing on fungi).<br />
 <br />
There is no doubt that there are many undiscovered genera as of 2018.<br />
 <br />
According to BugGuide:<br />
 <br />
&quot;They inhabit mostly wet forests; also quite common in swamps; some live in the moister parts of heath and open grassland. Some larvae mainly bound to the sporophores of fleshy Basidiomycetes, others (esp. Mycomyinae, Sciophilinae, and Leiinae) spin glutinous webs under sporophores or under bark of dead trunks and branches.<br />
 <br />
They can feed on spores and/or hyphae of fleshy Basidiomycetes; some species can be bred from Polyporaceae and rarely from Ascomycetes and Myxomycetes. A few species are monophagous or polyphagous, but the majority of species are restricted to particular genera or families of fungi. Some of the web-spinning larvae are predaceous and others mycophagous. A few exotic species live on mosses and liverworts.<br />
 <br />
The flowers of Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema) lure and trap adult fungus gnats with their fungus smell and accomplish pollination by these means.&quot;<br />
 <br />
- <a href="https://bugguide.net/node/view/12759" rel="nofollow">https://bugguide.net/node/view/12759</a><br />
 <br />
In truth, they can inhabit a wide variety of habitats, from forests and urbanized and suburbanized areas, to, during the day, caves, overhanging stream banks and cavities under tree roots, along the habitats previously mentioned in BugGuide. They are mostly crepuscular in nature.<br />
<br />
Mycetophilidae used to make up, along with Cecidomyiidae and Sciaridae, the superfamily Sciaroidea but this changed. Mycetophilidae are now treated as six separate families: Mycetophilidae (which I believe is my individual); Bolitophilidae; Ditomyiidae; Diadocidiidae; Keroplatidae; Lygistorrhinidae. There are plenty of undiscovered subjects and study on these Dipterans are not enough as of 2018. Many more families may eventually be discovered, with many changes occurring which can range from small to big, such as the migration of a species to another family or merging of a family with another.<br />
 <br />
Mycetophilidae is the largest family in species number under Sciaroidea with around 3,500 species worldwide allocated inside around 136 genera. This is largely misleading, though; the numbers are by far inaccurate due to the unstable situation of these Dipterans. There is no doubt that there are many more species that are undiscovered, which implies that the number of species worldwide is not even remotely close to 3,500, but by far greater.<br />
 <br />
They are very sensitive to deforestation and may suffer considerable temporary or permanent populational decrease if deforestation continues for a few decades. This is because they need fungi to live, sometimes specific ones. Some larvae can be found in birds&#039; nests and mammals&#039; burrows and feed on the fungi there, causing benefits to the animals in question. As such, with this one example among many others, we can see that they are greatly important in the complex and intricate web of life, also serving as food to a great amount of organisms. Agaricus sp., mysteryously, do not serve as hosts. Their larvae are usually slender, white, with ventral welts and a dark head capsule. 5 instars are needed to reach adulthood. The pupa stage usually occurs in the ground but may occur within or hanging from the host fungus, in a woven web of salivary threads. The entire egg-adult stage can be fast in some species, but can be longer in others.<br />
 <br />
This individual measured approximately 3mm or less. Found on the 16th floor of a flat in an urban habitat.<br />
 <br />
Other sources:<br />
<br />
<a href="https://books.google.com.br/books?id=i9ITMiiohVQC&amp;pg=PA1551&amp;lpg=PA1551&amp;dq=mycetophilidae&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=VYAqSqkROU&amp;sig=2s_GFYKB7KS807KYJR6aUA2MWNY&amp;hl=pt-BR&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwii3Luc4avbAhXIF5AKHboAAgUQ6AEIazAH#v=onepage&amp;q=mycetophilidae&amp;f=false" rel="nofollow">https://books.google.com.br/books?id=i9ITMiiohVQC&amp;pg=PA1551&amp;lpg=PA1551&amp;dq=mycetophilidae&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=VYAqSqkROU&amp;sig=2s_GFYKB7KS807KYJR6aUA2MWNY&amp;hl=pt-BR&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwii3Luc4avbAhXIF5AKHboAAgUQ6AEIazAH#v=onepage&amp;q=mycetophilidae&amp;f=false</a><br />
<br />
<a href="https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycetophilidae" rel="nofollow">https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycetophilidae</a><br />
<br />
Text revision by Fernanda Leonel. Animalia,Arthropoda,Arthropods,Bibionomorpha,Brazil,Brazilian Dipterans,Diptera,Dipteran,Insecta,Mycetophilidae,Nematocera,Sciaroidea,arthropod,brasil,insect,insects,inseto,insetos,unidentified,unknown Click/tap to enlarge

Unknown spotting - Fungus Gnat - Mosquito-do-Fungo

Date: 14th of April, 2018 at 08:48:24pm.
Found on the 16th floor of a flat in an urban habitat.

Second picture:

Unknown spotting - Fungus Gnat - Mosquito-do-Fungo Date: 14th of April, 2018 at 08:47:51pm.<br />
Found on the 16th floor in a flat in an urban habitat.<br />
<br />
Full post here: https://www.jungledragon.com/image/60826/unknown_spotting_-_fungus_gnat_-_mosquito-do-fungo.html Arthropoda,Arthropods,Bibionomorpha,Brazil,Brazilian Dipterans,Diptera,Dipteran,Fall,Geotagged Animalia,Insecta,Mycetophilidae,Nematocera,Sciaroidea,arthropod,brasil,insect,insects,inseto,insetos,unidentified


There is no way for me to accurately identify this. Mycetophilidae was recently split in several difficult to diagnose subfamiliae, according to Doug Yanega, entomologist. As such, there is no way for me to go beyond the family level. Definitely a member of the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Bibionomorpha, superfamily Sciaroidea and family Mycetophilidae in the sensu lato. Unfortunately, until the taxonomic complications in this individual gets attenuated, I won't be able to go further, nor will any friend of mine.

A few Mycetophilids are able to display bioluminescence in the larval stage, but some may display it during the pupa stage and the adult stage. This is due to the predatory habits of some larvae, which uses the light to attract their prey. This has two sides, though. While it may attract prey, it can also attract predators. You can find all this information and the genera included in the sensu lato of Mycetophilidae here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycetophilidae

Identification is difficult and diagnosing characters might not be accurate. It is believed that traits that can be considered are the humped thorax, stout and elongate coxae, well-developed tibial spurs, subtle differences in the wing venations and variation in chaetotaxy and genitalia. These are called "fungus gnats" because the larvae feed on fungi, spores, hyphae, mosses, liverworts (these last two occurring only in a few species) and prey (partly predatory, mainly focusing on fungi).

There is no doubt that there are many undiscovered genera as of 2018.

According to BugGuide:

"They inhabit mostly wet forests; also quite common in swamps; some live in the moister parts of heath and open grassland. Some larvae mainly bound to the sporophores of fleshy Basidiomycetes, others (esp. Mycomyinae, Sciophilinae, and Leiinae) spin glutinous webs under sporophores or under bark of dead trunks and branches.

They can feed on spores and/or hyphae of fleshy Basidiomycetes; some species can be bred from Polyporaceae and rarely from Ascomycetes and Myxomycetes. A few species are monophagous or polyphagous, but the majority of species are restricted to particular genera or families of fungi. Some of the web-spinning larvae are predaceous and others mycophagous. A few exotic species live on mosses and liverworts.

The flowers of Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema) lure and trap adult fungus gnats with their fungus smell and accomplish pollination by these means."

- https://bugguide.net/node/view/12759

In truth, they can inhabit a wide variety of habitats, from forests and urbanized and suburbanized areas, to, during the day, caves, overhanging stream banks and cavities under tree roots, along the habitats previously mentioned in BugGuide. They are mostly crepuscular in nature.

Mycetophilidae used to make up, along with Cecidomyiidae and Sciaridae, the superfamily Sciaroidea but this changed. Mycetophilidae are now treated as six separate families: Mycetophilidae (which I believe is my individual); Bolitophilidae; Ditomyiidae; Diadocidiidae; Keroplatidae; Lygistorrhinidae. There are plenty of undiscovered subjects and study on these Dipterans are not enough as of 2018. Many more families may eventually be discovered, with many changes occurring which can range from small to big, such as the migration of a species to another family or merging of a family with another.

Mycetophilidae is the largest family in species number under Sciaroidea with around 3,500 species worldwide allocated inside around 136 genera. This is largely misleading, though; the numbers are by far inaccurate due to the unstable situation of these Dipterans. There is no doubt that there are many more species that are undiscovered, which implies that the number of species worldwide is not even remotely close to 3,500, but by far greater.

They are very sensitive to deforestation and may suffer considerable temporary or permanent populational decrease if deforestation continues for a few decades. This is because they need fungi to live, sometimes specific ones. Some larvae can be found in birds' nests and mammals' burrows and feed on the fungi there, causing benefits to the animals in question. As such, with this one example among many others, we can see that they are greatly important in the complex and intricate web of life, also serving as food to a great amount of organisms. Agaricus sp., mysteryously, do not serve as hosts. Their larvae are usually slender, white, with ventral welts and a dark head capsule. 5 instars are needed to reach adulthood. The pupa stage usually occurs in the ground but may occur within or hanging from the host fungus, in a woven web of salivary threads. The entire egg-adult stage can be fast in some species, but can be longer in others.

This individual measured approximately 3mm or less. Found on the 16th floor of a flat in an urban habitat.

Other sources:

https://books.google.com.br/books?id=i9ITMiiohVQC&pg=PA1551&lpg=PA1551&dq=mycetophilidae&source=bl&ots=VYAqSqkROU&sig=2s_GFYKB7KS807KYJR6aUA2MWNY&hl=pt-BR&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwii3Luc4avbAhXIF5AKHboAAgUQ6AEIazAH#v=onepage&q=mycetophilidae&f=false

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycetophilidae

Text revision by Fernanda Leonel.

    comments (1)

  1. So interesting Oscar! I had no idea that some fungus gnats were capable of bioluminescence! So cool. I personally find fungus gnats to be very beautiful and I have often peeked inside Jack in the Pulpit flowers searching for these flies :). Awesome notes as usual! Excelente! Posted 4 years ago

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By Oscar Neto

All rights reserved
Uploaded May 31, 2018. Captured Apr 14, 2018 20:48 in Rua Tomás Acioli, 1185 - Joaquim Távora, Fortaleza - CE, 60135-180, Brazil.
  • NIKON D7000
  • f/16.0
  • 1/250s
  • ISO100
  • 60mm