Cow Parsnip

Heracleum maximum

''Heracleum maximum'', cow parsnip is the only member of the genus ''Heracleum'' native to North America. Its classification has caused some difficulty, with recent authoritative sources referring to it variously as ''Heracleum maximum'' or ''Heracleum lanatum '', as ''H. linatum'', or as either a subspecies, ''H. sphondylium'' subsp. ''montanum'', or a variety, ''H. sphondylium'' var. ''linatum'', of the common hogweed . The classification given here follows ITIS.
Cow Parsnip - Heracleum maximum Cow parsnip is native to North America.  It is a HUGE plant that grows to be over 2 meters (7 ft) tall.  The flower umbels are 20 cm across and the leaves are up to 40 cm across!  It is often confused with Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum), but cow parsnip is not as toxic.  Cow Parsnip sap contains a phototoxin that reacts with ultraviolet light to cause skin irritation ranging from a mild rash to severe blistering.  It's kind of like an anti-sunscreen.

 Cow Parsnip,Geotagged,Heracleum,Heracleum maximum,Indian rhubarb,Spring,United States,celery,cow parsnip,pushki

Appearance

Cow parsnip is a tall herb, reaching to heights of over 2 metres . The genus name Heracleum refers to the very large size of all parts of these plants. Cow Parsnip has the characteristic flower umbels of the carrot family , about 20 centimetres across; these may be flat-topped or rounded, and are always white. Sometimes the outer flowers of the umbel are much larger than the inner ones. The leaves are very large, up to 40 cm across, and divided into lobes. The stems are stout and succulent. The seeds are 8–12 mm long and 5–8 mm wide.

The stems and leaves contain furocoumarins, a chemical responsible for the characteristic rash of erythematous vesicles and subsequent hyperpigmentation that occurs after getting the clear sap onto one's skin. The chemical is photosensitive, with the rash occurring only after exposure to ultraviolet light. Because of this, phytophotodermatitis typically occurs after using a weed-eater to remove the plants on a sunny day.
Cow Parsnip At first I was thinking that this must be giant hogweed - but there was so much of it that I decided it must not be, as that is considered to be a noxious invasive weed here in Washington and, I think, many counties require you to eradicate it if it is found on your property. Cow Parsnip,Geotagged,Heracleum maximum,Spring,United States

Naming

The water parsnip '''', western water hemlock '''', and spotted water hemlock '''' all have white flowers in large compound umbels and therefore are easily confused with cow parsnip. Water parsnip and water hemlock both have clusters of small white flowers shaped like umbrellas, and both have the same habitat near the shore line of lakes, and rivers. Water parsnip has leaves only once compound, and water hemlock has leaves which are three times compound. Water hemlock has a large swelling at the stem base. All water hemlock is highly poisonous. Water parsnip is not poisonous. The water hemlock has bracts at the base of each small flower cluster, not at the base of the main flower head. The Water parsnip has small bracts at the base of flowers and main flower head as well.

The yarrow '''' also has many small white flowers in a cluster. However, the yarrow has feathery looking leaves which are pinnately separated into small narrow segments.

In regions in which both cow parsnip and the phototoxic giant hogweed '''' can be found, the occurrence of cow parsnip can cause public concern due to its generally similar appearance. However, while the cow parsnip can grow up to 2 m tall, the giant hogweed lives up to its name by typically growing 2 to 5 m tall, with huge leaves to match.
Cow Parsnip  Cow Parsnip,Geotagged,Heracleum maximum,Summer,United States

Distribution

Cow Parsnip is distributed throughout most of the continental United States except the Gulf Coast and a few neighboring states. It occurs from sea level to about 9000 ft, and is especially prevalent in Alaska. It is listed as "Endangered" in Kentucky and "Special Concern" in Tennessee. In Canada, it is found in each province and territory, except Nunavut. It may be weedy or invasive in portions of its range.
common cow parsnip  Cow Parsnip,Geotagged,Heracleum maximum,Spring,United States

Uses

Native American tribes had many different uses for this plant. A common use was to make poultices to be applied to bruises or sores. In addition, young stalks and leaf stems were used for food, where the outer skin was peeled off giving a sweet flavor. The dried stems were used as drinking straws for the old or infirm, and to make flutes for children.

A yellow dye can be made from the roots, and an infusion of the flowers can be rubbed on the body to repel flies and mosquitoes.

The Kutenai in the Northern Rockies call cow parsnip in their native language ''wumash'' . The Concow band of the Maidu culture in Northern California call it chou’-mē-ō .

References:

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Taxonomy
KingdomPlantae
DivisionAngiosperms
ClassEudicots
OrderApiales
FamilyApiaceae
GenusHeracleum
SpeciesH. maximum