Bengal tiger

Panthera tigris tigris

The Bengal tiger is the most numerous tiger subspecies. Its populations have been estimated at 1,706–1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 163–253 in Nepal and 67–81 in Bhutan.
Since 2010, it has been classified as an endangered species by the IUCN. The total population is estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals with a decreasing trend, and none of the ''Tiger Conservation Landscapes'' within the Bengal tiger's range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 adult individuals.

Bengal is traditionally fixed as the typical locality for the binomial ''Panthera tigris'', to which the British taxonomist Pocock subordinated the Bengal tiger in 1929 under the trinomial ''Panthera tigris tigris''.

It is the national animal of both India and Bangladesh.
Bengal Tiger Taken in Bannerghatta National Park, Karnataka, India. Bengal tiger,Geotagged,India,Panthera tigris tigris

Appearance

The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black; the belly and the interior parts of the limbs are white, and the tail is orange with black rings.

Male Bengal tigers have an average total length of 270 to 310 cm including the tail, while females measure 240 to 265 cm on average. The tail is typically 85 to 110 cm long, and on average, tigers are 90 to 110 cm in height at the shoulders. The average weight of males is 221.2 kg , while that of females is 139.7 kg . The smallest recorded weights for Bengal tigers are from the Bangladesh Sundarbans, where adult females are 75–80 kg .


The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the Bengal tiger, which is reported in the wild from time to time in Assam, Bengal, Bihar and especially from the former State of Rewa. However, it is not to be mistaken as an occurrence of albinism. In fact, there is only one fully authenticated case of a true albino tiger, and none of black tigers, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846.
The classic shot Out of all my tiger sightings, I've always wanted this cliché shot of a tiger like this...  this last trip gave it to me! :) Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve,Bengal tiger,Fall,Geotagged,India,Panthera tigris tigris

Distribution

In 1982, a sub-fossil right middle phalanx was found in a prehistoric midden near Kuruwita in Sri Lanka, which is dated to about 16,500 ybp and tentatively considered to be of a tiger. Tigers appear to have arrived in Sri Lanka during a pluvial period during which sea levels were depressed, evidently prior to the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago. In 1929, the British taxonomist Pocock assumed that tigers arrived in southern India too late to colonize Sri Lanka, which earlier had been connected to India by a land bridge.

In the Indian subcontinent, tigers inhabit tropical moist evergreen forests, tropical dry forests, tropical and subtropical moist deciduous forests, mangroves, subtropical and temperate upland forests, and alluvial grasslands. Latter tiger habitat once covered a huge swath of grassland and riverine and moist semi-deciduous forests along the major river system of the Gangetic and Brahmaputra plains, but has now been largely converted to agriculture or severely degraded. Today, the best examples of this habitat type are limited to a few blocks at the base of the outer foothills of the Himalayas including the ''Tiger Conservation Units'' Rajaji-Corbett, Bardia-Banke, and the transboundary TCUs Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki, Dudhwa-Kailali and Sukla Phanta-Kishanpur. Tiger densities in these blocks are high, in part a response to the extraordinary biomass of ungulate prey.
'Law Of The Jungle' - Royal Bengal Tiger with Wild-Boar Kill, taken at Ranthambore, Rajasthan, India Tigress with Kill. One of the most thrilling and mesmerizing moment for me.This is Tigress Lightning, one of T-19's Cubs from Zone 3 Ranthambore. She had killed a female wild-boar in the morning. We followed this Tigress for more than half an hour and got the sequence of her dragging the kill. Bengal tiger,Geotagged,India,Panthera tigris tigris,Spring,Tiger,Tiger with kill

Status

An area of special interest lies in the ''Terai Arc Landscape'' in the Himalayan foothills of northern India and southern Nepal, where 11 protected areas comprising dry forest foothills and tall-grass savannas harbor tigers in a 49,000 square kilometres landscape. The goals are to manage tigers as a single metapopulation, the dispersal of which between core refuges can help maintain genetic, demographic, and ecological integrity, and to ensure that species and habitat conservation becomes mainstreamed into the rural development agenda. In Nepal a community-based tourism model has been developed with a strong emphasis on sharing benefits with local people and on the regeneration of degraded forests. The approach has been successful in reducing poaching, restoring habitats, and creating a local constituency for conservation.

WWF partnered with Leonardo DiCaprio to form a global campaign, Save Tigers Now, with the ambitious goal of building political, financial and public support to double the wild tiger population by 2022. ''Save Tigers Now'' started its campaign in 12 different WWF Tiger priority landscapes, since May 2010.
Royal Bengal Tiger More luck with the tigers this time round. Royal Bengal, Ranthambhore, India Bengal tiger,Fall,Geotagged,India,Panthera tigris tigris

Behavior

The basic social unit of the tiger is the elemental one of mother and offspring. Adult animals congregate only on an ''ad hoc'' and transitory basis when special conditions permit, such as plentiful supply of food. Otherwise they lead solitary lives, hunting individually for the dispersed forest and tall grassland animals, upon which they prey. They establish and maintain home ranges. Resident adults of either sex tend to confine their movements to a definite area of habitat within which they satisfy their needs, and in the case of tigresses, those of their growing cubs. Besides providing the requirements of an adequate food supply, sufficient water and shelter, and a modicum of peace and seclusion, this location must make it possible for the resident to maintain contact with other tigers, especially those of the opposite sex. Those sharing the same ground are well aware of each other’s movements and activities.

In the Panna Tiger Reserve an adult radio-collared male tiger moved 1.7 to 10.5 km between locations on successive days in winter, and 1 to 13.9 km in summer. His home range was about 200 km2 in summer and 110 km2 in winter. Included in his home range were the much smaller home ranges of two females, a tigress with cubs and a sub-adult tigress. They occupied home ranges of 16 to 31 km2 .

The home ranges occupied by adult male residents tend to be mutually exclusive, even though one of these residents may tolerate a transient or sub-adult male at least for a time. A male tiger keeps a large territory in order to include the home ranges of several females within its bounds, so that he may maintain mating rights with them. Spacing among females is less complete. Typically there is partial overlap with neighbouring female residents. They tend to have core areas, which are more exclusive, at least for most of the time. Home ranges of both males and females are not stable. The shift or alteration of a home range by one animal is correlated with a shift of another. Shifts from less suitable habitat to better ones are made by animals that are already resident. New animals become residents only as vacancies occur when a former resident moves out or dies. There are more places for resident females than for resident males.

During seven years of camera trapping, tracking, and observational data in Chitwan National Park, 6 to 9 breeding tigers, 2 to 16 non-breeding tigers, and 6 to 20 young tigers of less than one year of age were detected in the study area of 100 km2 . One of the resident females left her territory to one of her female offspring and took over an adjoining area by displacing another female; and a displaced female managed to re-establish herself in a neighboring territory made vacant by the death of the resident. Of 11 resident females, 7 were still alive at the end of the study period, 2 disappeared after losing their territories to rivals, and 2 died. The initial loss of two resident males and subsequent take over of their home ranges by new males caused social instability for two years. Of 4 resident males, 1 was still alive and 3 were displaced by rivals. Five litters of cubs were killed by infanticide, 2 litters died because they were too young to fend for themselves when their mothers died. One juvenile tiger was presumed dead after being photographed with severe injuries from a deer snare. The remaining young lived long enough to reach dispersal age, 2 of them becoming residents in the study area.
Creative processing - Tiger Since i am currently city-bound, i am spending a lot of time re-processing images...  this is one in a series of images I've been meaning to process for a long time...  a more studio feel and arty....  Thoughts, comments? Bandhavgarh National Park,Bengal tiger,Fall,Geotagged,India,John Rowell,John Rowell Photography,Madhya Pradesh,National Park,Panthera tigris tigris,asia,copyright

Habitat

In 1982, a sub-fossil right middle phalanx was found in a prehistoric midden near Kuruwita in Sri Lanka, which is dated to about 16,500 ybp and tentatively considered to be of a tiger. Tigers appear to have arrived in Sri Lanka during a pluvial period during which sea levels were depressed, evidently prior to the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago. In 1929, the British taxonomist Pocock assumed that tigers arrived in southern India too late to colonize Sri Lanka, which earlier had been connected to India by a land bridge.

In the Indian subcontinent, tigers inhabit tropical moist evergreen forests, tropical dry forests, tropical and subtropical moist deciduous forests, mangroves, subtropical and temperate upland forests, and alluvial grasslands. Latter tiger habitat once covered a huge swath of grassland and riverine and moist semi-deciduous forests along the major river system of the Gangetic and Brahmaputra plains, but has now been largely converted to agriculture or severely degraded. Today, the best examples of this habitat type are limited to a few blocks at the base of the outer foothills of the Himalayas including the ''Tiger Conservation Units'' Rajaji-Corbett, Bardia-Banke, and the transboundary TCUs Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki, Dudhwa-Kailali and Sukla Phanta-Kishanpur. Tiger densities in these blocks are high, in part a response to the extraordinary biomass of ungulate prey.The basic social unit of the tiger is the elemental one of mother and offspring. Adult animals congregate only on an ''ad hoc'' and transitory basis when special conditions permit, such as plentiful supply of food. Otherwise they lead solitary lives, hunting individually for the dispersed forest and tall grassland animals, upon which they prey. They establish and maintain home ranges. Resident adults of either sex tend to confine their movements to a definite area of habitat within which they satisfy their needs, and in the case of tigresses, those of their growing cubs. Besides providing the requirements of an adequate food supply, sufficient water and shelter, and a modicum of peace and seclusion, this location must make it possible for the resident to maintain contact with other tigers, especially those of the opposite sex. Those sharing the same ground are well aware of each other’s movements and activities.

In the Panna Tiger Reserve an adult radio-collared male tiger moved 1.7 to 10.5 km between locations on successive days in winter, and 1 to 13.9 km in summer. His home range was about 200 km2 in summer and 110 km2 in winter. Included in his home range were the much smaller home ranges of two females, a tigress with cubs and a sub-adult tigress. They occupied home ranges of 16 to 31 km2 .

The home ranges occupied by adult male residents tend to be mutually exclusive, even though one of these residents may tolerate a transient or sub-adult male at least for a time. A male tiger keeps a large territory in order to include the home ranges of several females within its bounds, so that he may maintain mating rights with them. Spacing among females is less complete. Typically there is partial overlap with neighbouring female residents. They tend to have core areas, which are more exclusive, at least for most of the time. Home ranges of both males and females are not stable. The shift or alteration of a home range by one animal is correlated with a shift of another. Shifts from less suitable habitat to better ones are made by animals that are already resident. New animals become residents only as vacancies occur when a former resident moves out or dies. There are more places for resident females than for resident males.

During seven years of camera trapping, tracking, and observational data in Chitwan National Park, 6 to 9 breeding tigers, 2 to 16 non-breeding tigers, and 6 to 20 young tigers of less than one year of age were detected in the study area of 100 km2 . One of the resident females left her territory to one of her female offspring and took over an adjoining area by displacing another female; and a displaced female managed to re-establish herself in a neighboring territory made vacant by the death of the resident. Of 11 resident females, 7 were still alive at the end of the study period, 2 disappeared after losing their territories to rivals, and 2 died. The initial loss of two resident males and subsequent take over of their home ranges by new males caused social instability for two years. Of 4 resident males, 1 was still alive and 3 were displaced by rivals. Five litters of cubs were killed by infanticide, 2 litters died because they were too young to fend for themselves when their mothers died. One juvenile tiger was presumed dead after being photographed with severe injuries from a deer snare. The remaining young lived long enough to reach dispersal age, 2 of them becoming residents in the study area.
Tigress On the regular safari, we hit a hard right turn and then this beauty was relaxing on the path. A surprise find. Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve,Bengal tiger,Panthera tigris tigris,big cats,india,wildlife

Reproduction

The tiger in India has no definite mating and birth seasons. Most young are born in December and April. Young have also been found in March, May, October and November. In the 1960s, certain aspects of tiger behaviour at Kanha National Park indicated that the peak of sexual activity was from November to about February, with some mating probably occurring throughout the year.


Males reach maturity at 4–5 years of age, and females at 3–4 years. A tigress comes into heat at intervals of about 3–9 weeks, and is receptive for 3–6 days. After a gestation period of 104–106 days, 1–4 cubs are born in a shelter situated in tall grass, thick bush or in caves. Newborn cubs weigh 780 to 1,600 g and they have a thick wooly fur that is shed after 3.5–5 months. Their eyes and ears are closed. Their milk teeth start to erupt at about 2–3 weeks after birth, and are slowly replaced by permanent dentition from 8.5–9.5 weeks of age onwards. They suckle for 3–6 months, and begin to eat small amounts of solid food at about 2 months of age. At this time, they follow their mother on her hunting expeditions and begin to take part in hunting at 5–6 months of age. At the age of 2–3 years, they slowly start to separate from the family group and become transient — looking out for an area, where they can establish their own territory. Young males move further away from their mother's territory than young females. Once the family group has split, the mother comes into heat again.
Don't mess with me.. One must see tiger in Wild instead of going to zoos and watching captive ones..

Its knowing real jungles to sight a Tiger.. 
Knowing alarm calls of Deers, Langurs etc animals which will help you spotting tiger..
You have to be there very early like before dawn or around dusk as these are the timing best for tiger sightings because its there time for hunting and to drink water from water bodies nearby.

This particular Tigress was roaming and the alarm calls of deers made us aware of her presence. We drove towards alarm calls and we saw her coming towards us.. She is young and very Beautiful.. 
She came towards our safari gypsy, looked at us, went ahead to cross safari track and while crossing she growled at our safari vehicle, and this was the moment.
She is named 'Dotty Krishna' 
Every tiger has different stripe pattern like finger prints and hence their photographic record helps us identify individual tigers from each other.

All are welcome to India and Indian Jungles.

Thanks for reading. 70-300,70-300mm,Bengal tiger,D5200,Geotagged,India,Magadhi,National park,Nikon,NikonD5200,Panthera tigris tigris,Spring,Tamron,Tiger,abhitap,baagh,bagh,bandhavgarh,bigcat,cat

Food

Tigers are carnivores. They prefer hunting large ungulates such as chital, sambar, gaur, and to a lesser extent also barasingha, water buffalo, nilgai, serow and takin. Among the medium-sized prey species they frequently kill wild boar, and occasionally hog deer, muntjac and Gray langur. Small prey species such as porcupines, hares and peafowl form a very small part in their diet. Due to the encroachment of humans into their habitat, they also prey on domestic livestock.

In most cases, tigers approach their victim from the side or behind from as close a distance as possible and grasp the prey's throat to kill it. Then they drag the carcass into cover, occasionally over several hundred meters, to consume it. The nature of the tiger's hunting method and prey availability results in a "feast or famine" feeding style: they often consume 18–40 kilograms of meat at one time.

Bengal tigers have been known to take other predators, such as leopards, wolves, jackals, foxes, crocodiles, Asiatic black bears, sloth bears, and dholes as prey, although these predators are not typically a part of their diet. Adult elephants and rhinoceroses are too large to be successfully tackled by tigers, but such extraordinarily rare events have been recorded. The Indian hunter and naturalist Jim Corbett described an incident in which two tigers fought and killed a large bull elephant. If injured, old or weak, or their normal prey is becoming scarce, they may even attack humans and become man-eaters.
The Paar wali tigress || Dhikala, Corbett || April 2016.
ƒ/6.3, ISO 200, 1/500s @ 600mm. Bengal tiger,Geotagged,India,Panthera tigris tigris,Spring

Predators

Over the past century tiger numbers have fallen dramatically, with a decreasing population trend. None of the ''Tiger Conservation Landscapes'' within the Bengal tiger range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 individuals. Habitat losses and the extremely large-scale incidences of poaching are serious threats to the species' survival.

The challenge in the Western Ghats forest complex in western South India, an area of 14,400 square miles stretching across several protected areas is that people literally live on top of the wildlife. The Save the Tiger Fund Council estimates that 7,500 landless people live illegally inside the boundaries of the 386-square-mile Nagarhole National Park in southwestern India. A voluntary if controversial resettlement is underway with the aid of the Karnataka Tiger Conservation Project led by K. Ullas Karanth of the Wildlife Conservation Society.

A 2007 report by UNESCO, "Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage" has stated that an anthropogenic 45-cm rise in sea level, likely by the end of the 21st century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, combined with other forms of anthropogenic stress on the Sundarbans, could lead to the destruction of 75% of the Sundarbans mangroves.
The Forest Rights Act passed by the Indian government in 2006 grants some of India's most impoverished communities the right to own and live in the forests, which likely brings them into conflict with wildlife and under-resourced, under-trained, ill-equipped forest department staff. In the past, evidence showed that humans and tigers cannot co-exist.
Tiger on the prowl I clicked this picture of Noor (T-39) at Ranthambhore National Park in Rajasthan, India in an early morning safari. Bengal tiger,Fall,Geotagged,India,Panthera tigris tigris

Cultural

The tiger is one of the animals displayed on the Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The tiger crest is the emblem on the Chola coins. The seals of several Chola copper coins show the tiger, the Pandya emblem fish and the Chera emblem bow, indicating that the Cholas had achieved political supremacy over the latter two dynasties. Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the Nellore district of Andra Pradesh have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks.

Today, the tiger is the national animal of India. Bangladeshi banknotes feature a tiger. The political party Muslim League of Pakistan uses the tiger as its election symbol.
⤷  A tiger features on the logo of the Reserve Bank of India.
⤷  The Kolkata team in the Indian Cricket League is called the Royal Bengal Tigers.
⤷  The Bangladesh Cricket Board's logo features a Royal Bengal Tiger.
⤷  The team representing Tollywood in Celebrity Cricket League is named Bengal Tigers.
⤷  Members of the East Bengal Regiment of the Bangladesh Army are nicked 'Bengal Tigers'; the regiment's logo is a tiger face.
⤷  The 2007 film ''Maneater'' , based on Jack Warner's novel ''Shikar'', details the killing spree of an escaped Bengal tiger after it gets loose in a small town along the Appalachian Trail.
⤷  In the fantasy adventure novel ''Life of Pi'' and in the 2012 film a Bengal tiger is the lead character.
⤷  University of Missouri has Bengal Tiger as their mascot, students are known as tigers, their athletic team is Missouri Tigers, their web space and email as Bengal-space and Bengal-mail.
⤷  Louisiana State University's Tigers are nicknamed the Bayou Bengals.
⤷  Cincinnati's National Football League team is named the Cincinnati Bengals.
⤷  The varsity athletic teams representing Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho in intercollegiate athletics is named Idaho State Bengals.
⤷  The Detroit's MLB team Detroit Tigers are nicknamed the Bengals.
⤷  Dominican Republic's most successful baseball team Licey Tigers are nicknamed the Bengals.
⤷  German heavy tank Tiger II was informally known as ''Königstiger''
⤷  The main antagonist of The Jungle Book, Shere Khan, is a Bengal tiger

References:

Some text fragments are auto parsed from Wikipedia.

Status: Endangered
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderCarnivora
FamilyFelidae
GenusPanthera
SpeciesPanthera tigris