AppearanceThe great egret is a large heron with all-white plumage. Standing up to 1 m tall, this species can measure 80 to 104 cm in length and have a wingspan of 131 to 170 cm. Body mass can range from 700 to 1,500 g, with an average of around 1,000 g . It is thus only slightly smaller than the great blue or grey heron . Apart from size, the great egret can be distinguished from other white egrets by its yellow bill and black legs and feet, though the bill may become darker and the lower legs lighter in the breeding season. In breeding plumage, delicate ornamental feathers are borne on the back. Males and females are identical in appearance; juveniles look like non-breeding adults. Differentiated from the intermediate egret by the gape, which extends well beyond the back of the eye in case of the great egret, but ends just behind the eye in case of the intermediate egret.
It has a slow flight, with its neck retracted. This is characteristic of herons and bitterns, and distinguishes them from storks, cranes, ibises, and spoonbills, which extend their necks in flight.
The great egret is not normally a vocal bird; at breeding colonies, however, it often gives a loud croaking ''cuk cuk cuk''.
NamingThere are four subspecies in various parts of the world, which differ but little. Differences are bare part coloration in the breeding season and size; the largest ''A. a. modesta'' from Asia and Australasia some taxonomists consider a full species, the eastern great egret .:
⤷ ''Ardea alba alba''
⤷ ''Ardea alba egretta''
⤷ ''Ardea alba melanorhynchos''
⤷ ''Ardea alba modesta''
StatusThe great egret is generally a very successful species with a large and expanding range. In North America, large numbers of great egrets were killed around the end of the 19th century so that their plumes could be used to decorate hats. Numbers have since recovered as a result of conservation measures. Its range has expanded as far north as southern Canada. However, in some parts of the southern United States, its numbers have declined due to habitat loss. Nevertheless, it adapts well to human habitation and can be readily seen near wetlands and bodies of water in urban and suburban areas. In 1953, the great egret in flight was chosen as the symbol of the National Audubon Society, which was formed in part to prevent the killing of birds for their feathers.
The great egret is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies.
On 22 May 2012, it was announced a pair of great egrets were nesting in the UK for the first time at the Shapwick Heath nature reserve in Somerset. The species is a rare visitor to the UK and Ben Aviss of the BBC stated that the news could mean the UK's first great egret colony is established. The following week, Kevin Anderson of Natural England confirmed a great egret chick had hatched, making it a new breeding bird record for the UK. Anderson commented "We've definitely seen one chick stretching a wing just before the adult arrived and also after it left and we continue to monitor for more. The eggs of the great egret can hatch over a period of a few days so it may be that if there are other young on the nest they will be less developed and won't be visible yet."
HabitatThe great egret is partially migratory, with northern hemisphere birds moving south from areas with colder winters. It breeds in colonies in trees close to large lakes with reed beds or other extensive wetlands. It builds a bulky stick nest.
FoodThe great egret feeds in shallow water or drier habitats, feeding mainly on fish, frogs, small mammals, and occasionally small reptiles and insects, spearing them with its long, sharp bill most of the time by standing still and allowing the prey to come within its striking distance of its bill which it uses as a spear. It will often wait motionless for prey, or slowly stalk its victim.
CulturalThe great egret is depicted on the reverse side of a 5-Brazilian reais banknote.
''White Egrets'' is the title of Saint Lucian poet Derek Walcott's fourteenth collection of poems.
The great egret is the symbol of the National Audubon Society.
The name of venerable Shariputra, one of the Buddha's best known followers, signifies ''the son of the egret'' , it is said that his mother had eyes like a great egret.
In Belarus, there is a commemorative coin with the image of a Great egret.
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