Red- backed salamander

Plethodon cinereus

The red back salamander is a small, hardy woodland salamander. It inhabits wooded slopes in eastern North America, west to Missouri, south to North Carolina, and north from southern Quebec and the Maritime Provinces in Canada to Minnesota. It is also known as the eastern red-backed salamander or the northern red back salamander to distinguish it from the southern red back salamander .
Red-backed Salamander - Plethodon cinereus This salamander had a blackish brown body with an orange stripe down the middle of its back. It was ~4 cm long. 

Red-backed salamanders exhibit color polymorphism with two common color variations - the 'red-backed' variety has a red dorsal stripe that tapers towards the tail and the 'lead-backed' variety lacks most or all of the red pigmentation. The red-backed phase is not always red, but may actually be various other colors (yellow-backed, orange-backed, or white-backed). 

Habitat: This salamander was all curled up on top of some gray mold that was growing on rotting wood in a mixed forest. Fall,Geotagged,Plethodon cinereus,Red- backed salamander,United States,salamander

Appearance

The red back salamander is a small terrestrial salamander which usually lives in forested areas under rocks, logs, bark, and other debris. It is one of the most numerous salamanders throughout its range. The red back salamander exhibits color polymorphism and two color variations are common: the nominate 'red back' variety has a red dorsal stripe that tapers towards the tail, and the darker variety, known as the 'lead back phase', lacks most or all of the red pigmentation. The red back phase is not always red, but may actually be various other colors . Both morphs have speckled black and white bellies.

The skin of red back salamanders was found to contain ''Lysobacter gummosus'', an epibiotic bacterium which produces the chemical 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and inhibits the growth of certain pathogenic fungi.
Lead-backed Salamander - Plethodon cinereus This salamander was so fast! I only got a couple quick shots before it disappeared. 

Plethodon cinereus exhibits color polymorphism with two common color variations - the 'red-backed' variety has a red dorsal stripe that tapers towards the tail and the 'lead-backed' variety lacks most or all of the red pigmentation. This spotting shows the lead-backed variety.

Habitat: Along the edge of a bog
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/76947/lead-backed_salamander_-_plethodon_cinereus.html Geotagged,Plethodon cinereus,Red- backed salamander,Spring,United States

Behavior

Antipredator behavior was found to differ between the two color phases; the lead back phase has a tendency to run away from predators, whereas the red back phase often stays immobile and possibly exhibits aposematic coloration. Stress levels of each color phase were estimated by determining the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte cells in the blood, and the results suggest stress levels are higher in the lead back phase than the red back variety. This may be a consequence of a higher predation risk experienced in the wild by the lead back phase, and may also mean the lead back phase salamanders could be more vulnerable in captivity settings.
Red-backed Salamander - Plethodon cinereus This salamander had a blackish brown body with an orange stripe down the middle of its back. It was ~5 cm long. 

Red-backed salamanders exhibit color polymorphism with two common color variations - the 'red-backed' variety has a red dorsal stripe that tapers towards the tail and the 'lead-backed' variety lacks most or all of the red pigmentation. The red-backed phase is not always red, but may actually be various other colors (yellow-backed, orange-backed, or white-backed). 

Habitat: Under rotting wood in a mixed forest.
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/68177/red-backed_salamander_-_plethodon_cinereus.html
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/68175/red-backed_salamander_-_plethodon_cinereus.html Fall,Geotagged,Plethodon cinereus,Red- backed salamander,United States,salamander

Habitat

The red back salamander is a small terrestrial salamander which usually lives in forested areas under rocks, logs, bark, and other debris. It is one of the most numerous salamanders throughout its range. The red back salamander exhibits color polymorphism and two color variations are common: the nominate 'red back' variety has a red dorsal stripe that tapers towards the tail, and the darker variety, known as the 'lead back phase', lacks most or all of the red pigmentation. The red back phase is not always red, but may actually be various other colors . Both morphs have speckled black and white bellies.

The skin of red back salamanders was found to contain ''Lysobacter gummosus'', an epibiotic bacterium which produces the chemical 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and inhibits the growth of certain pathogenic fungi.

References:

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Status: Least concern | Trend: Stable
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Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassAmphibia
OrderCaudata
FamilyPlethodontidae
GenusPlethodon
SpeciesP. cinereus