Eurasian Wolf

Canis lupus lupus

The Eurasian wolf , also known as the European, common, or forest wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf which has the largest range among wolf subspecies and is the most common in Europe and Asia, ranging through Mongolia, China, Russia, Scandinavia, Western Europe, Caucasus, the Himalayan Mountains and Balkans. Compared to their North American cousins, Eurasian wolves tend to have longer, more highly placed ears, narrower heads, more slender loins and coarser, tawnier coloured fur. Compared to Indian wolves, Eurasian wolves are larger, and have longer, broader skulls. In Europe, wolves rarely form large packs like in North America, as their lives are more strongly influenced by human activities. Because of this, Eurasian wolves tend to be more adaptable than North American wolves in the face of human expansion.
Italian wolf - Canis lupus italicus  Canis lupus lupus,Eurasian Wolf,Geotagged,Italy,abruzzo,canidae,canis lupus lupus,carnivora,eurasian wolf,italian wolf,lupo,lupo appenninico,lupo italiano,mammalia,mammals,wolf

Distribution

With the exception of Great Britain and Ireland but have now been reintroduced, wolves were widespread in Europe during the 18th century. Wolves were exterminated from all central and northern European countries during the 19th century and the post World War II period. Remnant populations remain in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Finland, though Eurasian wolves have been recovering naturally in several parts of Europe; recolonising France, Germany, Sweden and Norway. The largest populations now occur in eastern Europe, primarily in Romania, the Balkans and Poland.

Wolf populations generally seem to be stable or increasing in most, but not all, Bern Convention nations. Limiting factors in member nations include a lack of acceptance of wolves due to concerns on livestock and dog predation and competition with hunters. Although properly regulated wolf harvests and control have been largely accepted as compatible with maintaining wolf numbers to economically acceptable levels, overhunting and poaching are recognised as the main limiting factor in European wolf populations. Excluding Russia, European wolf populations number 18,000-25,000.
Dozing in the sun Eurasian wolf / Europäischer Grauwolf / Canis lupus lupus Canidae,Canis lupus lupus,Carnivora,Eurasian Wolf,Geotagged,Germany,Mammals,Summer

Behavior

Because of widespread habitat reduction and displacement of large prey, European wolf packs are usually smaller than North American ones, and generally form territorial ranges of 100–500 km², as opposed to North American packs whose territories encompass 80-2,500 km². Because of their longer association with urban civilisations, Eurasian wolves tend to be more adaptable than North American wolves in the face of human expansion; Southern European wolves successfully live in areas with much higher human densities than what North American wolves will tolerate.
Attention A couple of wolves out of the bunch Canis lupus lupus,Eurasian Wolf,forest,snow,wildlife,wolf

Food

Unlike wolves in North America, many Eurasian wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose, red deer, roe deer and wild boar are still important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe. Other prey species include reindeer, mouflon, wisent, saiga, ibex, chamois, mountain goats, fallow deer and musk deer.

In Scandinavia, moose are their most frequent prey in forested areas, while roe deer predominate in agricultural lands. Wild reindeer are the primary food source for wolves living in the tundra regions of Siberia, while moose are targeted in the taiga zones. Wild boar are an important prey item for wolves in the Kyzyl-Agash Reserve near the Caspian Sea, southern Spain and the Apennines in Italy, constituting 12-52% of their dietary intake in the latter area. In the Białowieża Forest, wolves primarily feed on red deer; 75% of red deer mortality there was attributed to wolf predation. Mouflon and chamois are the most frequent prey in France's Mercantour National Park. In northern Finland, wolves subsist largely on domesticated reindeer herds. In northwestern Spain, they feed almost entirely on livestock.Unlike North American wolf hunts which were partaken by ordinary civilians, Eurasian wolf hunts were an activity usually reserved for the nobility. In Scotland, Mary, Queen of Scots hunted wolves in the forest of Atholl in 1563, while in Czarist Russia, before the Emancipation reform of 1861, wolf hunting was done solely by authorized firearm holders, usually police, soldiers, rich landowners or nobles. A notable exception was Sweden, where the Swedish kings Magnus Eriksson and Christopher of Bavaria decreed wolf hunting a civic duty, with only priests, parish clerks and landless women exempted. Under penalty of a fine, every wolf hunter had to own a wolf net at least four fathoms long and to take part in general wolf hunts whenever called upon.

European wolves were commonly hunted with wolfhounds, which varied in appearance and use according to country. Irish wolfhounds were bred as far back as 3 BC, and were bred to kill wolves single handedly. In France, mixed teams of bloodhounds, sighthounds and mastiffs were used. In both Czarist and Soviet Russia, landowners and Cossacks hunted wolves with borzois, deerhounds, staghounds and Siberian wolfhounds, as well as smaller greyhounds and foxhounds.

The use of decoys was popularly used in 19th-century Russia and Scandinavia; a pig was used as a decoy and was transported in a strong canvas sack on a horse-drawn sleigh. The pig, kept in the canvas bag, was made to squeal in order to attract the wolves. Hunters would wait at a distance to shoot the wolves when they came out after the pig. Once the wolves arrived, the hunters would either shoot them or retrieve the pig and canvas bag. In the latter case, they took off down the road, luring the wolves behind. The wolves would be lead to a palisade, where they would be trapped and shot.

In Lapland, wolves were occasionally hunted by the Lapps on skis. They would be armed with stout, 6-foot-long poles tipped with a pike which was used both as propulsion and as a weapon. A skidor hunt was usually undertaken by multiple hunters over a course of a few days. The kill itself was usually made at a slope or hillside.
Wolf This picture was taken at a Wolf Sanctuary in the UK. They help with the preservation of wolves in the wild. I was fortunate enough to be able to attend a photography workshop there. Canis lupus lupus,Eurasian Wolf

Predators

With the exception of Great Britain and Ireland but have now been reintroduced, wolves were widespread in Europe during the 18th century. Wolves were exterminated from all central and northern European countries during the 19th century and the post World War II period. Remnant populations remain in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Finland, though Eurasian wolves have been recovering naturally in several parts of Europe; recolonising France, Germany, Sweden and Norway. The largest populations now occur in eastern Europe, primarily in Romania, the Balkans and Poland.

Wolf populations generally seem to be stable or increasing in most, but not all, Bern Convention nations. Limiting factors in member nations include a lack of acceptance of wolves due to concerns on livestock and dog predation and competition with hunters. Although properly regulated wolf harvests and control have been largely accepted as compatible with maintaining wolf numbers to economically acceptable levels, overhunting and poaching are recognised as the main limiting factor in European wolf populations. Excluding Russia, European wolf populations number 18,000-25,000.

Cultural

In Roman mythology, wolves were sacred to Mars, and a she-wolf known as ''Lupa'' was said to have raised Romulus and Remus, the traditional founders of Rome. ''Lupa'' was also used for female prostitutes and for priestesses of a wolf goddess, leading to an alternative theory that the "wolf" was human.

Wolves feature prominently in Norse mythology, in particular the mythological wolves Fenrir, Sköll and Hati. Fenrir, a son of Loki and Angrboða, served a dual role in Norse mythology; as the maimer of Týr, and as the killer of Odin at ''Ragnarok''. Sköll was depicted in ''Gylfaginning'' as a wolf which pursued the setting sun, while Hati chased the moon. Wolves also served as mounts for more or less dangerous humanoid creatures. For instance, ''Gunnr's horse'' was a kenning for "wolf" on the Rök Runestone, in the ''Lay of Hyndla'', the völva Hyndla rides a wolf, and to Baldr's funeral, the giantess Hyrrokin arrived on a wolf. In modern Sweden, wolves are popular power animals in the nation's neoshamanist community.

In Irish Mythology, wolves appear in the form of Airitech's three daughters, killed by Cas Corach. The Morrígan was said to take on the form of a red-furred wolf, particularly in her battle with the hero Cú Chulainn. Cormac mac Airt was said to have been raised by wolves, and that he could understand their speech. Four wolves would accompany him in his rebellion against Lugaid mac Con, and would later be accompanied by them until the end of his life.

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Status: Least concern
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderCarnivora
FamilyCanidae
GenusCanis
SpeciesC. lupus