Pisaster ochraceus

Pisaster ochraceus

''Pisaster ochraceus'', generally known as the purple sea star, ochre sea star, or ochre starfish, is a common starfish found among the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Identified as a keystone species, ''P. ochraceus'' is considered an important indicator for the health of the intertidal zone.
A Gathering of Pisaster ochraceus. These Ochre Sea Stars are likely feeding on the barnacles attached to this exposed piling. They are exposed due to the extreme low tide. Up until 2013 this occurrence would have been commonplace but due to the “sea star wasting disease” it has been rare or nonexistent. Up until now! The Sunflower Seastar with its many arms have yet to recover. It’s good to see the return of these purple fellows. Canada,Geotagged,Pisaster ochraceus,Purple sea star,Summer

Appearance

This sea star has five stout rays that range in length from 10 to 25 centimeters . The rays are arranged around an ill-defined central disk. While most individuals are purple, they can be orange, orange-ochre, yellow, reddish, or brown. The aboral surface contains many small spines that are arranged in a netlike or pentagonal pattern on the central disk. The ossicles are no higher than 2 mm. In ''Pisaster'' the tube feet have suckers on their distal ends which allow them to attach to the rocky substrate and live in heavily wave-swept areas. ''P. ochraceus'' has a simple nervous system and does not have a brain. A nerve ring connects and relays impulses between the star's radial nerves.

Two species that can be mistaken for ''P. ochraceus'' are ''P. giganteus'', which has blue rings around white or purple spines, and ''P. brevispinus'', which is pink with small white spines. These two species have different aboral spines and coloration which allows one to distinguish between the species. ''Evasterias troscheli'' may be confused with ''P. ochraceus'' at times as well. It can be distinguished by its smaller disk size and longer, tapering rays which are often thickest a short distance out from their base rather than at the base as in ''P. ochraceus''.
An Ochre, Ochre Sea Star! Ochre or in this case specifically yellow ochre is coloured by iron hydroxide. Yellow ochre was used as a pigment for drawing pictographs by the local First Nations people and is the one I am accustomed to seeing.There also is red or purple ochre depending on the iron oxide that makes up the pigment. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ochre 
It is quite unusual to see an actual ochre Pisaster ochraceus. Canada,Geotagged,Summer

Status

''Pisaster ochraceus'' has been described as a keystone species. Experiments by zoologist Robert T. Paine in the 1960s demonstrated that a loss of only a few individual ''P. ochraceus'' seastars had a profound impact on mussel bed population, thereby reducing the health of the intertidal environment. With only a few natural predators it is suggested that the principal enemies of ''P. ochraceus'' are human collectors and casual tidepool visitors. ''Pisaster ochraceus'' has not been evaluated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature .
Hanging On! Being out of the water this Purple Seastar is fighting gravity. The tube feet are clearly visible. It was not alone! 
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/82596/a_gathering_of_pisaster_ochraceus.html Canada,Geotagged,Pisaster ochraceus,Purple sea star,Summer

Habitat

This sea star can be found in great numbers on mussel beds and on wave-washed rocky shores. The juveniles are often found in crevices and under rocks. Its depth range is from above the low-tide zone to 90 m in depth. ''P. ochraceous'' is very durable and can tolerate a loss of thirty-percent of its body weight in body fluids.
Purple Sea Star The purple sea star is a common Pacific starfish that specializes in inter tidal zones. It is a keystone species, meaning that it is a good indicator of disturbance in its ecosystem. This specimen was captured at second beach, La Push, Washington at low tide. Geotagged,Pisaster ochraceus,Purple sea star,United States,Washington

Reproduction

Members of ''Pisaster'' are dioecious but there is no sexual dimorphism and sexes can be separated only by the presence of eggs or sperm in the gonads. They reproduce by broadcast spawning, which occurs in the Puget Sound around May to July. There is no parental investment beyond spawning. Fertilization occurs in the water column and ''Pisaster ochraceous'' develops through several larval stages.

The reproductive system consists of a pair of gonads branching into each ray off a circular genital strand which is along the oral inner surface of the central disc. The gonads look like a feathery collection of tubules. In females there are orange gonads and in males they are whitish. During maturation of the gametes, the gonads increase in size and can account for up to 40 percent of the sea star's weight. The gonopores are too small to be seen, and can only be found when the sea stars are spawning.
Starfish  California,Geotagged,Pisaster ochraceus,Purple sea star,United States,starfish

Food

At the larval stage, ''Pisaster ochraceus'' are filter feeders and their diet consists of plankton. As an adult, ''P. ochraceus'' feeds on mussels such as ''Mytilus californianus'' and ''Mytilus trossulus''. They also feed on chitons, limpets, snails, barnacles, echinoids, and even decapod crustacea.

''P. ochraceus'' uses its tube feet to handle its prey. If the prey is too large to be swallowed whole, then it can use its tube feet to open shells. It can evert its stomach through its mouth and engulf its prey, liquify it with digestive enzymes and ingest the processed food. Mussels hold their valves together very securely but ''P. ochraceus'' can insert part of its everted stomach, or some digestive juices, through the narrow gap that exists where the byssal threads emerge from the shell. The mussel needs to open its valves periodically to feed and breathe and the sea star can exert a powerful traction with its tube feet, pulling the two valves further open. Once the stomach is inside the mussel, digestion takes place. It is thought one sea star can consume eighty Californian mussels in a year.

References:

Some text fragments are auto parsed from Wikipedia.

Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionEchinodermata
ClassAsteroidea
OrderForcipulatida
FamilyAsteriidae
GenusPisaster
SpeciesP. ochraceus