AppearanceIn extremely arid conditions, it may occur as a small, wiry bush. It grows up to 21 m in height. The tree carries leaves that grow to approx. 2.5 cm in length with between 4 and 10 pair of pinnae each with up to 15 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are small and white, highly aromatic, and occur in tight clusters. Seeds are produced in pods which are flat and coiled into a springlike structure.
The plant is known to tolerate high alkalinity, drought, high temperatures, sandy & stony soils, strongly sloped rooting surfaces, and sand blasting. Also, plants older than 2 years have been observed to be somewhat frost resistant.
NamingSpread over such a large area inhabited by diverse cultures, the ''A. tortilis'' is known by a wide number of common names. These include :
⤷ Afrikaans: haak-en-steek
⤷ Arabic: samar, sammar, samor, samra, sayyal, seyal, seyyal
⤷ English: karamoja, umbrella thorn
⤷ Hebrew: shitat ha'sochech
⤷ Hindi: Israeli babool
⤷ Italian: acacia ad ombrello
⤷ Ndebele: isanqawe, umsasane, umshishene, umtshatshatsha
⤷ Nyanja: mzunga, nsangu, nsangunsangu, nyoswa
⤷ Somali: abak, kura, maraa
⤷ Swahili: mgunga, mugumba, munga
⤷ Tigrigna: akba, akiba, alla, aqba
⤷ Tongan: mukoka, muzungu, ngoka
⤷ Tswana: mosu, mosunyana
⤷ Zulu: umSasane*''Acacia tortilis'' subsp. ''heteracantha'' Brenan
⤷ ''Acacia tortilis'' subsp. ''raddiana'' Brenan
⤷ ''Acacia tortilis'' subsp. ''spirocarpa'' Brenan
⤷ ''Acacia tortilis'' subsp. ''tortilis''
Distribution''Acacia tortilis'' tends to grow in areas where temperatures vary from 0 to 50 degree Celsius and rainfall is anywhere from about 100–1,000 mm per year.
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