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Cytinus hypocistis Cytinus hypocistis L. subsp. macranthus, Wettst.<br />
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One of the most extreme manifestations of parasitism is found in the families of endoparasites Rafflesiaceae, Mitrastemonaceae, Apodanthaceae and Cytinaceae. These perennial plants, without chlorophyll, are obligate parasites, and depend on their hosts to obtain water and nutrients (Kuijt, 1969). All show a reduction in their morphological characters, with scale-like leaves and absence of external roots, and their vegetative body is reduced to a haustorial or endophytic system, often compared with that of a fungal plectenchyme. These endophytes live within the roots or stems of their hosts (Kuijt, 1969; Meijer, 1993), and emerge from the hosts only during the reproductive period, when the inflorescences arise. Because of this characteristic lifestyle, these endophytic holoparasites were long considered to constitute a single family, the Rafflesiaceae. However, differences in the morphology of flowers, ovaries and seeds, together with data from recent molecular phylogenetic studies, indicate that they are dis- tinct families, even belonging to different orders (Bouman and Meijer, 1994; Barkman et al., 2004; Nickrent et al., 2004; Davis et al., 2007). <br />
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In <a href="http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/6/1209.full.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/6/1209.full.pdf</a><br />
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<a href="http://www.flora-on.pt/#/1cytinus_hypocistis" rel="nofollow">http://www.flora-on.pt/#/1cytinus_hypocistis</a> Cytinaceae,Cytinus,Cytinus hypocistis,Cytinus_hypocistis,Malvales,Plantae,Rafflesiaceae,endoparasites,magnoliopsidam,parasites,parasitism,wild flowers Click/tap to enlarge PromotedSpecies introCountry intro

Cytinus hypocistis

Cytinus hypocistis L. subsp. macranthus, Wettst.

One of the most extreme manifestations of parasitism is found in the families of endoparasites Rafflesiaceae, Mitrastemonaceae, Apodanthaceae and Cytinaceae. These perennial plants, without chlorophyll, are obligate parasites, and depend on their hosts to obtain water and nutrients (Kuijt, 1969). All show a reduction in their morphological characters, with scale-like leaves and absence of external roots, and their vegetative body is reduced to a haustorial or endophytic system, often compared with that of a fungal plectenchyme. These endophytes live within the roots or stems of their hosts (Kuijt, 1969; Meijer, 1993), and emerge from the hosts only during the reproductive period, when the inflorescences arise. Because of this characteristic lifestyle, these endophytic holoparasites were long considered to constitute a single family, the Rafflesiaceae. However, differences in the morphology of flowers, ovaries and seeds, together with data from recent molecular phylogenetic studies, indicate that they are dis- tinct families, even belonging to different orders (Bouman and Meijer, 1994; Barkman et al., 2004; Nickrent et al., 2004; Davis et al., 2007).

In http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/6/1209.full.pdf

http://www.flora-on.pt/#/1cytinus_hypocistis

    comments (11)

  1. Cool, I've never seen anything like it. Posted 3 years ago
    1. We were on work on this location when out of the grayish sands and broken darkened wood shreds this strange beings popped out due to their colors* It was my first time also. And they are very interesting, i'm still reading associated info, hope to spot them this year too. Thanks a lot, cheers* Posted 3 years ago, modified 3 years ago
  2. Fascinating. An excellent read. Thanks for showing this. Posted 3 years ago
    1. Thank you* Posted 3 years ago
  3. Very, very interesting symbiotic life! Thank you! Posted 3 years ago
    1. Cheers! Posted 3 years ago
  4. I don't remember to have seen anything like this. Interesting find and a good capture too. Posted 3 years ago
    1. Thank you! Posted 3 years ago
  5. From today's JungleDragon Facebook post:
    "Cytinus hypocistis is a holoparasitic plant distributed primarily near the Mediterranean Sea. It is parasitic on members of the rock-rose family (Cistaceae) and can typically be found growing near these host plants in early spring. It was once thought to be a member of the Rafflesiaceae family, but recent data placed it in the Cytinaceae family.

    Holoparasitic plants are nonphotosynthetic and rely solely on host plants for their water and nutrients. As a result, they do not typically produce roots or leaves, and their vegetative bodies are reduced to a haustorial system within the host's roots and tissues.

    In spring, Cytinus hypocistis enters its reproductive period, emerging from its host and forming inflorescences aboveground. Even in this stage, this plant is not self-reliant and must depend on other organisms for pollination and seed dispersal. Ants act as the primary pollinators, while beetles are the most effective seed dispersers. {Spotted in Portugal by JungleDragon moderator, RMFelix} #JungleDragon "
    Posted 10 months ago
    1. Fascinating! Such a gorgeous plant and so interesting. Thanks for the post, Lisa! Posted 10 months ago
    2. Thanks so much, great post!! Cheers* Posted 10 months ago

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''Cytinus hypocistis'' is an ant-pollinated species of parasitic plant in the family Cytinaceae having four subspecies. It is found primarily in locations that surround the Mediterranean Sea, and is the type for the genus ''Cytinus''. The binomial has been conserved.

"One of the most extreme manifestations of parasitism is found in the families of endoparasites Rafflesiaceae, Mitrastemonaceae, Apodanthaceae and Cytinaceae. These perennial plants, without chlorophyll, are obligate parasites,.. more

Similar species: Malvales
Species identified by RMFelix
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By RMFelix

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Uploaded Mar 15, 2016. Captured Apr 10, 2015 13:27.
  • NIKON D7100
  • f/7.1
  • 1/400s
  • ISO400
  • 300mm