Great eggflys

Hypolimnas bolina

''Hypolimnas bolina'', the great eggfly, common eggfly or in New Zealand the blue moon butterfly is a species of nymphalid butterfly found from Madagascar to Asia and Australia.
Clipper Butterfly Beautiful black butterfly with white spots. Butterfly,Great Eggfly,Hypolimnas bolina,Insects,Malaysia,Rhopalocera

Naming

Listed alphabetically:
⤷ ''H. b. bolina'' –
⤷ ''H. b. constans'' –
⤷ ''H. b. enganica'' Fruhstorfer, 1904 –
⤷ ''H. b. gigas'' –
⤷ ''H. b. incommoda'' Butler, 1879
⤷ ''H. b. inconstans'' Butler, 1873 –
⤷ ''H. b. jacintha''
⤷ ''H. b. jaluita'' Fruhstorfer, 1903
⤷ ''H. b. kezia'' –
⤷ ''H. b. kraimoku'' –
⤷ ''H. b. labuana'' Butler, 1879 –
⤷ ''H. b. lisianassa'' –
⤷ ''H. b. listeri'' Butler, 1888 –
⤷ ''H. b. montrouzieri'' –
⤷ ''H. b. naresii'' Butler, 1883 –
⤷ ''H. b. nerina'' –
⤷ ''H. b. pallescens'' –
⤷ ''H. b. philippensis'' –
⤷ ''H. b. pulchra'' –
⤷ ''H. b. rarik'' Eschscholtz, 1821) –
The great eggfly, Hypolimnas bolina bolina f nerina - Upperside/female  Fall,Geotagged,Great eggflys,Hypolimnas bolina,Indonesia

Distribution

''H. bolina'' is found in Madagascar in the west, through to South and Southeast Asia, the South Pacific islands , and occurs in parts of Australia, Japan, and New Zealand.
The great eggfly, Hypolimnas bolina - male (upper side)  Geotagged,Great Eggfly,Hypolimnas bolina,Indonesia,Winter

Behavior

''H. bolina'' is known for maternal care, with the females guarding leaves where eggs have been laid. Males are also very territorial and site fidelity increases with age. Territories that enhance the detection of females are preferred. The female hovers over a plant to check for ants which will eat her eggs. After selecting a plant which has no ants on it, she lays at least one but often two to five eggs on the undersides of the leaves.
Great eggfly - Hypolimnas bolina  Australia,Geotagged,Great eggflys,Hypolimnas bolina,Spring

Habitat

''H. bolina'' is a fairly common butterfly found in lightly wooded country, deciduous forests, thick and moist scrub, and the greener parts of human habitats.''H. bolina'' is known for maternal care, with the females guarding leaves where eggs have been laid. Males are also very territorial and site fidelity increases with age. Territories that enhance the detection of females are preferred. The female hovers over a plant to check for ants which will eat her eggs. After selecting a plant which has no ants on it, she lays at least one but often two to five eggs on the undersides of the leaves.
Hypolimnas bolina bolina f nerina - female upperside  Geotagged,Great eggflys,Hypolimnas bolina,Indonesia,Summer

Reproduction

The eggs are a pale, glassy green with longitudinal ridges except on the top.
Great Eggfly ( female  Hypolimnas bolina  Great Eggfly,Hypolimnas bolina

Evolution

On the Samoan Islands of Upolu and Savai'i, a parasite had been killing the male members of ''Hypolimnas bolina''. The problem was so severe that by 2001, males made up only 1% of the population. However, in 2007, it was reported that within a span of just 10 generations , the males had evolved to develop immunity to the parasite, and the male population increased to nearly 40%.

References:

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