Golden poison frog

Phyllobates terribilis

''Phyllobates terribilis'', the golden poison frog or the golden dart frog, is a poison dart frog endemic to the Pacific coast of Colombia. The optimal habitat of ''P. terribilis'' is the rainforest with high rain rates , altitude between 100–200 m, temperature of at least 26 °C, and relative humidity of 80–90%. In the wild, ''P. terribilis'' is a social animal, living in groups of up to six individuals; however, captive ''P. terribilis'' can live in much larger groups. ''Terribilis'' frogs are often considered innocuous due to their small size and bright colours; however, wild specimens are lethally toxic. This poison dart frog is confirmed to have killed humans who touched the wild frog directly.
Its a yellow submarine, a yellow .. This is as sharp as it gets with my prime low light 1.8, not enough zoom to capture in more detail. This froggy was curious and took several efforts to catch my attention. Not that hard, as I was digitally examining him. Bye bye and thanks, my 2 centimeter mellow yellow! Geotagged,Golden poison frog,Phyllobates terribilis,The Netherlands,oliemeulen

Appearance

''P. terribilis'' is the largest species of poison dart frog, and can reach a size of 55 mm in adulthood, with females typically being larger than males. Like all poison dart frogs, the adults are brightly colored; however, they lack the dark spots present in many other dendrobatids. The frog's color pattern is aposematic . The frog has tiny adhesive disks in its toes which aid climbing of plants. It also has a bone plate in the lower jaw, which gives the frog the appearance of having teeth, a distinctive feature not observed in the other species of ''Phyllobates''. The frog is normally diurnal . ''Phyllobates terribilis'' occurs in three different color varieties or morphs:
Golden poison frog Macro Fun fact: in dutch, german and in latin their name means "terrible" frog.  Antwerpen,Golden poison frog,Phyllobates terribilis

Behavior

''P. terribilis'' is considered to be one of the most intelligent anurans. Like all poison dart frogs, captives can recognize human caregivers after exposure of a few weeks. They are also extremely successful tongue hunters, using their long, adhesive tongues to catch food, and almost never miss a strike. This success at tongue-hunting implies better brainpower and resolution on eyesight than some other frogs. Golden poison frogs are curious, bold, and seemingly aware of the fact that they are next to invulnerable, making no attempt to conceal themselves and actually flaunting their beautiful colors to intimidate potential predators.

Golden poison frogs are social animals. Wild specimens typically live in groups of four to seven ; captive frogs can be kept in groups of 10 or even 15, although groups that rise past that number are extremely susceptible to aggression and disease. Like all poison dart frogs, they are rarely aggressive towards members of their own species; however, occasional minor squabbles may occur between members of the group. Being immune to their own poison, golden poison frogs interact constantly with each other. They communicate not only with their calls, but also with gestures. Push-up movements are a sign of dominance, while lowered heads seem to signal submission.

Like all members of the genera ''Phyllobates'', ''Dendrobates'', and ''Ranitomeya'', family groups of golden poison dart frogs gather together in large breeding gatherings once or twice per year. While peaceful towards others of their species at other times, the male frogs can be formidably aggressive while competing for a breeding space. Females will remain fairly calm throughout this ordeal. Courtship for the golden poison frog is similar to that of the green and black poison dart frog. Its call consists of a rapid series of high-pitched squeaks. Golden poison frogs are notable for being extremely tactile during reproduction, each partner stroking its mate's head, back, flanks, and cloacal areas before mating.

''P. terribilis'' frogs are dedicated parents. The golden poison frogs lay their eggs on the ground, hidden beneath the leaf litter. Once the tadpoles emerge from their eggs, they stick themselves to the mucus on the backs of their parents. The adult frogs carry their young into the canopy, depositing them in the pools of water that accumulate in the centre of bromeliads. The tadpoles feed on algae and mosquito larvae in the bromeliad, and their mother will even supplement their diet by laying infertile eggs into the water for the tadpoles to eat. Unlike ''Oophaga pumilio'', however, ''P. terribilis'' tadpoles can thrive on other foods and do not require their mother to feed them eggs. Once the tadpoles develop into froglets, their parents lead them to the group in which one parent, usually the female, lived. The young are accepted by all members of the group, but remain in close proximity to their parents until sexual maturity.
Smart frog This is quite an awesome frog. It is the largest poison dart frog species, as well as one of the most intelligent of all frogs. They are very self aware, of the power of their poison, and as such do not try to hide from any predator.  Antwerpen,Phyllobates terribilis

Food

The main natural sources of food of ''P. terribilis'' are the ants in the genera ''Brachymyrmex'' and ''Paratrechina'', but many kinds of insects and other small invertebrates can be devoured, specifically termites and beetles, which can easily be found on the rainforest floor. This frog is considered the most voracious of the dendrobatids.


In captivity, the frog is fed with ''Drosophila'' fruit flies, cochineals and crickets , the larvae of various insects, and other small, live, invertebrate foods. An adult frog can eat food items much larger in relation to its size than most other dendrobatids. Tadpoles will feed on algae, mosquito larvae, and other edible material that may be present in their nursery. Unlike other ''Phyllobates'' spp., ''P. terribilis'' tadpoles are somewhat versatile feeders.

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Status: Unknown
EX EW CR EN VU NT LC
Taxonomy
KingdomAnimalia
DivisionChordata
ClassAmphibia
OrderAnura
FamilyDendrobatidae
GenusPhyllobates
Species
Photographed in
Belgium
Netherlands